Grafting Techniques



How to Videos ext. links

How to Videos from the Fairchild Tropical Garden on how to Propagate mango trees.
Video on Bark Grafting from Dave Wilson's Nursery
Video on Cleft, Whip and Tongue and Side Veneer Grafts by Dave Wilson's Nursery
Video of the Cleft Graft from Stephen Hayes of Fruitwise Heritage Apples and a Close-up Video of the Same Graft


Types of Grafts

What Type to Use
Approach
Bark
Bridge
Budding
Cleft
Four Flap pdf
Inarch
Inverted Root
Side
Splice
Saddle
Tip Grafting by Crafton Clift
Wedge
Whip and Tongue

Grafting Waxes
Glossary
Further Reading


Grafting

Grafting is the joining of parts of plants together in such a way that they unite and continue their growth as one plant. The part of the graft combination which becomes the upper portion, or top, of the new plant is termed the scion, and the part which becomes the lower portion, or root, is termed the stock (under stock, rootstock).

All methods of joining plants are termed grafting, but when the scion is a small piece of bark or wood containing a single bud, this form of grafting is called budding.

Some of the reasons for grafting are: (1) to change the size of the resultant plant by dwarfing or increasing growth; (2) to increase plants that cannot be reproduced by other asexual methods; (3) to produce nematode or disease resistance; (4) to change the form or variety of a plant; (5) to produce earlier flowering and fruiting; (6) to develop a plant tolerant of a wider range of environmental conditions; and (7) to repair damaged plants ( inarching, brace graft, bridge graft).

Grafting is a rather difficult method of propagation and requires considerable skill. It takes an experienced grafter to obtain a high percentage of success. For any successful grafting operation there are these five requirements: 1) The stock and scion must be compatible. Otherwise they cannot unite. Graft only closely related plants such as two camellia varieties, not a live oak and citrus. 2) Cambial regions of scions and stock must be in intimate contact. Cut surfaces should be held tightly for proper healing and flow of water and nutrients. 3) Grafting must be done when the stock and scion are in the proper physiological stage. Scions for all grafting operations except budding must be dormant. Scions for budding can be either dormant or actively growing, depending on the budding method. Rootstocks can be growing or dormant, depending on the grafting method. 4) After grafting is completed, all cut surfaces must be protected from desiccation or drying out. This can be done by covering the graft with wax or tape or some moist material such as sphagnum moss. 5) Proper care must be given to the graft until it unites. Shoots from the stock must be removed because they can choke out the scion. In addition, shoots from the scion can grow so vigorously that they break the scion off unless staked or tied. 1

NOTE: In grafting, as well as budding, the vascular cambium of the scion or bud must be aligned with the vascular cambium of rootstock. In woody plants the cambium is a very thin ribbon of actively dividing cells located just below the bark. The cambium produces conductive tissue for the actively growing plant . This vascular cambium initiates callus tissue at the graft and bud unions in addition to stimulating tissue growth on the basal ends of many vegetative cuttings before they have rooted. 2

Credit: North Carolina Extension Service
Fig. 1 Cross section of a woody plant stem

The best quality scion wood usually comes from shoots grown the previous season. Scions should be severed with sharp, clean shears or knives and placed immediately in moistened burlap or plastic bags. It is good practice during the harvesting of scions and the making of grafts to clean the cutting tools regularly. This may be done by flaming or immersing them in a sterilizing solution. Isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol also works well as a sterilant, although it evaporates quite readily. An alternative sterilizing solution may be prepared by mixing one part household bleach with nine parts water (by volume). However, this bleach solution can be highly corrosive to certain metals.
For best results, harvest only as much scion wood as can be used for grafting during the same day. Select only healthy scion wood that is free from insect, disease, or winter damage. Be sure the stock plants are of good quality, healthy, and true to type. Scion wood that is frozen at harvest often knits more slowly and in lower percentage. If large quantities of scion wood must be harvested at one time, follow these steps: 1) Cut all scions to a uniform length, keep their basal ends together, and tie them in bundles of known quantity (for example, 50 scions per bundle). 2) Label them, recording the cultivar, date of harvest, and location of the stock plant. 3) Wrap the base of the bundles in moistened burlap or sphagnum, place them in polyethylene or waterproof paper bags, and seal the bags. 4) Store the bundles for short periods, if necessary, either iced down in insulated coolers or in a commercial storage unit at 32o to 34oF. 5)Never store scions in refrigerated units where fruits or vegetables are currently kept or have been stored recently. Stored fruits and vegetables release ethylene gas, which can cause woody plant buds to abort, making the scions useless. 6) Keep the scions from freezing during storage. 2

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What Type of Graft to Use

Types Used to Repair Damage

Inarching

Inarching

(to replace damaged root system)
Bridge Graft

Bridge Graft
(to repair damaged trunk)

Brace Graft


Brace Graft

(to support weak branches)
Fig. 2

Types Used When Scion and Stock are Approximately Equal in Size

whip or tongue graft

whip or tongue graft
splice graft
splice graft

saddle graft

saddle graft
Fig. 3

Types Used When Scion is Smaller than Stock


side graft

side graft
cleft graft
cleft graft
wedge, notch or saw-kerf graft
wedge, notch or saw-kerf graft

rind or bark inlay graft


rind or bark inlay graft


approach graft


approach graft
topworking
topworking
Fig. 4

Top

Approach Graft

The most critical aspect of budding is cutting the bud itself-it is only a very thin slice of bark and a sliver of wood beneath the bud, but it must be cut evenly and smoothly. The flat side of the blade must be flat against the budstick (Image10), with the knife held at about a 45 degree angle to the budstick. With the thumb braced along the stick below the bud, simply draw the knife towards the thumb (again, no sawing or rocking motion!), keeping the blade flat against the stick to prevent it from cutting too deeply (Image The distinguishing feature of approach grafting is that two independently growing, self-sustaining plants are grafted together. This self-sustaining characteristic of both plants which are to be grafted insures survival of both even if the grafting attempt is, for some reason, not successful. However odds of being successful are greatly enhanced because of the active growing condition of both plants involved and absence of a time limitation required for the healing of the graft union to occur before the dependent scion (top portion) dies from lack of sustenance. 5

whip or tongue graft

The approach grafting procedure is as follows:
Plant an adapted, growing plant as close to the base of the non-adapted variety as possible without extensively damaging the root structure of the established plant.

From both plants closely position shoots which are at least three-eighths inch diameter and preferably close to the same size. At the point where the union is to occur, a slice of bark one to two inches long is peeled from both stems. The peeled area should be the same size on each.

The two peeled surfaces are then bound tightly together with budding or electrical tape. Wrap completely with two complete covers around the area where the two peeled areas are in contact.

Remove some of the top portion of the foliage from the adapted variety six to eight inches above the graft union. This will encourage a more rapid healing of the grafted union.

The union should be complete in four weeks. This type of grafting is most successful if performed during growth season.

After the parts are well united (4 weeks or more),the remainder of the top of the adapted, native variety can be cut off immediately above the graft union and the bottom or root system of the non-adapted, yellowing plant can be cut off immediately below the graft union.

The graft union is now completed and the problems of iron chlorosis and indigenous soil pathogens have been solved if the proper rootstock has been used. Immediately after the portion of each plant is removed it may be necessary to reduce the leaf area of the top if wilting occurs because of lack of sufficient root system support. This situation will soon stabilize. If the only problem has been micronutrient (iron chlorosis) deficiency, the top, unadapted variety will not need to be detached from its own root system--the approach grafted, adapted variety root system will "feed" the sickly plant what it needs. However, if the purpose of the graft is to control soil borne diseases, the susceptible variety should be detached from its root system and become totally dependent on the root system of the adapted
variety. 5

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Bark or Rind Graft

This method of grafting is rapid and gives a high percentage of success if properly done. It can be used on branches from 1 to 6 inches in diameter. Follow these points: 1) Rootstocks must be actively growing as this graft depends upon separation of bark from the wood. This occurs in spring. Dormant scions are required so winter collection and storage is necessary. 2) Scions are made with a long sloping cut (1 to 2 inches) on one side and a shorter cut (1/2 to 1 inch) on the opposite side. Slant the shorter cut to conform to the slope of the bark on the stock. The side with the longer cut will be placed next to the wood of the stock to get cambial contact. 1

So often, a hybridizer gives you a piece of wood and asks you to graft it (when you learn how) hoping to get the plant back if he/she loses it for whatever reason. If it's a thin piece, this technique is a lifesaver. Thin rootstocks are not always successful. Thicker ones have a much better take rate for me...almost 100%.

This time, lay the knife along the bark as shown and gently push all the way in to the "wood". With a gentle twist each way the bark is lifted from the wood. (Go opposite the existing node for one graft, or one-quarter each way and make two slits to insert two.)

Cut the scion with a long flat cut from side-to-side. Back trim a little ledge on the back side to slide under the bark more easily. Now trim just a fine whisker down each edge to bare the cambium sap line to better connect with the flow. 3

Here is a picture sequence which may help give the idea.

Gently cut to wood
Gently cut to wood
Lift the flaps
Lift the flaps
The thin one
The thin one
Long "wedge"-type
Long "wedge"-type
Edge close-shaved
Edge close-shaved
Bit more trimming
Bit more trimming
Ready to insert
Ready to insert
Ready to wrap
Ready to wrap
Fig. 5 Sequence Rind or Bark Graft

Bark grafting is used primarily to top work flowering and fruiting trees. In contrast to cleft grafting, this technique can be applied to rootstock of larger diameter (4 to 12 inches) and is done during early spring when the bark slips easily from the wood but before major sap flow. The rootstock is severed with a sharp saw, leaving a clean cut as with cleft grafting.

Preparing the Stock: Start at the cut surface of the rootstock and make a vertical slit through the bark where each scion can be inserted (2 inches long and spaced 1 inch apart). Preparing the Scion: Since multiple scions are usually inserted around the cut surface of the rootstock, prepare several scions for each graft. Cut the base of each scion to a 1 ½- to 2-inch tapered wedge on one side only. Inserting the Scion: Loosen the bark slightly and insert the scion so that the wedge-shaped tapered surface of the scion is against the exposed wood under the flap of bark. Push the scion firmly down into place behind the flap of bark, replace the bark flap, and nail the scion in place by driving one or two wire brads through the bark and scion into the rootstock. Insert a scion every 3 to 4 inches around the cut perimeter of the rootstock. Securing the Graft: Seal all exposed surfaces with grafting wax or grafting paint. Once the scions have begun to grow, leave only the most vigorous one on each stub; prune out all the others. Bark grafts tend to form weak unions and therefore usually require staking or support during the first few years. 2

Video on Bark Grafting from Dave Wilson's Nursery ext. link
Texas Bark Inlay Bark Graft Publication from Aggie Horticulture® pdf 5 pages

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Bridge Graft

Bridge grafting is used to "bridge" a diseased or damaged area of a plant, usually at or near the base of the trunk. Such damage commonly results from contact with grading or lawn maintenance equipment, or it may be caused by rodents, cold temperatures, or disease organisms. The bridge graft provides support as well as a pipeline that allows water and nutrients to move across the damaged area. Bridge grafts are usually done in early spring just before active plant growth begins. They may be performed any time the bark on the injured plant "slips." 2

Bridge Graft
Fig. 6 Bridge Graft

Preparing the Scion: Select scions that are straight and about twice as long as the damaged area to be bridged. Make a 1 1/2- to 2-inch-long tapered cut on the same plane at each end of the scion. Preparing the Stock: Remove any damaged tissue so the graft is on healthy stems. Cut a flap in the bark on the rootstock the same width as the scion and below the injury to be repaired. Gently fold the flap away from the stock, being careful not to tear the bark flap. Inserting the Scion: First, insert and secure the scion below the injury; push the scion under the flap with the cut portion of the scion against the wood of the injured stem or trunk. Then go back and insert and secure the scion above the injury following these same steps. Push the scion firmly into place. Pull the flap over the scion and tack it into place as described for bark grafting . When grafting with young stems that may waver in the wind, insert the scions so that they bow outward slightly. Bridge grafts should be spaced about 3 to 4 inches apart across the damaged area. Securing the Graft: Secure all graft areas with warm grafting wax or grafting paint. During and after the healing period, remove any buds or shoots that develop on the scions. 2


Budding

Budding Techniques

Types Used When the Bark is Slipping

T-bud
T-bud
inverted T- bud
inverted T- bud
I-bud
I-bud
patch bud
patch bud
ring bud
ring bud
flute bud
topworking
Fig. 7

Types Used When Bark is not Slipping

chip bud
chip bud
Fig. 8

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Cleft Graft

Cleft Graft Technique

Cleft grafting is one of the oldest and most widely used types of grafting. It is used as a field technique primarily to convert old varieties of plants into newer more desirable varieties. Cleft grafting is useful with both large and small plant materials. Follow this procedure:
1) It is best to do cleft grafting in early spring after buds swell but before growth starts.
2) Saw the rootstock off close to the ground by cutting at right angles to the grain. Except for unusually large plants which are to be top-worked, leave a stump 3 to 6 inches high. It must be smooth to get a straight split. Use stock 1 inch or more in diameter.
3) Using a heavy knife or special grafting tool, make a vertical split
2 to 3 inches down the stock to be grafted. Hold the split in the stock open with a wedge or screwdriver.
4) Use scions with 3 buds and about 3 to 4 inches long collected from dormant 1-year-old wood. Cut them just above the top bud.
5) At the base of the lower bud make a sloping cut about 1 to 2 inches long. Leave the scion thicker on the bud side. Pressure on the stock should be greatest where the cambium touches.
6) Slip the scion down so the lower bud is close to the cut surface of the stock.  The two cambium layers MUST contact . Contact is improved by leaning the scion toward the outside of stock.  IMPORTANT!  In all grafting operations except budding, scions or buds must be right side up. 1


Cleft Graft
Fig. 9 Cleft graft

7) This is a general guide for the number of scions per stock: stock less than 3/4 inch in diameter--1 scion; 3/4 to l inch--2 scions; 1 1/2 to 3 inches--4 scions; more than 3 inches--6 scions.
8) Withdraw the wedge from the stock. Scions must be tight enough so that they cannot be pulled out by hand.
9) No tying is needed unless very small branches have been used. This is often necessary with camellias.
10) Thoroughly wax the graft. Stocks should also be waxed as far as the split goes. And the tips of stock and scions also should be waxed.

Check in 2 to 3 days and rewax to assure that the graft takes. 1

Inarch Graft

Inarching, like bridge grafting, is used to bypass or support a damaged or weakened area of a plant stem (Figure 9). Unlike bridge grafting, the scion can be an existing shoot, sucker, or water sprouts that is already growing below and extending above the injury. The scion may also be a shoot of the same species as the injured plant growing on its own root system next to the main trunk of the damaged tree. With the inarching technique, the tip of the scion is grafted in above the injury using the same method as for bark or bridge grafting. 2


Inarching Graft
Fig. 10 Inarching Graft

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The Inverted Root Graft

The Inverted Root Graft: Applications for the Home Garden in Florida from Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden pdf

Side Graft

At one time the side-veneer graft was a popular technique for grafting varieties of camellias and rhododendrons that are difficult to root. Currently, it is the most popular way to graft conifers, especially those having a compact or dwarf form. Side-veneer grafting is usually done on potted rootstock. 2

This is the easiest technique for many. For a rooted cutting, it is necessary to pull upwards with the left hand while applying downward pressure with the cutting blade at the right angle. Otherwise the pressure will break the roots off.

Make sure the angle stays constant with only a firm pressure
Use a rocking forward-back motion, not a hard shove
Try not to "scoop" - no curved cuts!
Try to cut the scion with a "flat" cut without scooping
Practice on scrap cuttings for you will need lots of practice
Un-rooted cuttings from pencil to finger thickness will do
Remember, tough tape can pull "soft" wood in to close gaps!!!

Here is a picture sequence which may help give the idea. 4

Practice the angle
Practice the angle
Now apply pressure
Now apply pressure
Rock forward
Rock forward
Then back
Then back
Forward again
Forward again
Back again
Back again
Test the cut depth
Test the cut depth
Insert the scion
Insert the scion
Down she goes!
Down she goes!
The fit's OK
The fit's OK
It's a wrap!!
It's a wrap!!
Fig. 11 Sequence Side Graft

Preparing the Stock: Rootstock is grown in pots the season before grafting, allowed to go dormant, and then stored as with other container nursery stock. After exposure to cold weather for at least six weeks, the rootstock is brought into a cool greenhouse for a few days before grafting takes place to encourage renewed root growth. The plant should not be watered at this time.
Make a shallow downward cut about 3/4 inch to 1 inch long at the base of the stem on the potted rootstock to expose a flap of bark with some wood still attached. Make an inward cut at the base so that the flap of bark and wood can be removed from the rootstock. Preparing the Scion: Choose a scion with a diameter the same as or slightly smaller than the rootstock. Make a sloping cut 3/4 to 1 inch long at the base of the scion. Inserting the Scion: Insert the cut surface of the scion against the cut surface of the rootstock. Be certain that the cambia contact each other. Securing the Graft: Hold the scion in place using a rubber grafting strip, tape, or grafting twine. Seal the entire graft area with warm grafting wax or grafting paint. Remove the rubber or twine shortly after the union has healed. Never allow the binding material to girdle the stem. 2

Splice Graft

Splice grafting is used to join a scion onto the stem of a rootstock or onto an intact rootpiece. This simple method is usually applied to herbaceous materials that callus or "knit" easily, or it is used on plants with a stem diameter of 1/2 inch or less. In splice grafting, both the stock and scion must be of the same diameter. 2


Splice Graft
Fig. 12 Splice Graft

Preparing the Stock and Scion: Cut off the rootstock using a diagonal cut 3/4 to 1 inch long. Make the same type of cut at the base of the scion. Inserting the Scion: Fit the scion to the stock. Wrap this junction securely with a rubber grafting strip or twine. Securing the Graft: Seal the junction with grafting wax or grafting paint. Water rootstock sparingly until the graft knits. Over watering may cause sap to "drown" the scion. Be sure to remove the twine or strip as soon as the graft has healed. 2

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Saddle Graft

Saddle grafting is a relatively easy technique to learn and once mastered can be performed quite rapidly. The stock may be either field-grown or potted. Both rootstock and scion should be the same diameter. For best results, use saddle grafting on dormant stock in mid- to late winter. Stock should not be more than 1 inch in diameter. 2
Saddle Graft
Fig. 13 Saddle Graft

Preparing the Stock: Using two opposing upward strokes of the grafting knife, sever the top from the rootstock. The resulting cut should resemble an inverted V, with the surface of the cuts ranging from 1/2 to 1 inch long. Preparing the Scion: Now reverse the technique to prepare the base of the scion. These cuts on the rootstock and scion must be the same length and have the same slope so that a maximum amount of cambial tissue will make contact when the two halves are joined. Inserting the Scion: Place the V-notched scion onto the saddle of the rootstock. If rootstock and scion are the same diameter, cambial alignment is easier; otherwise adjust as needed. Securing the Graft: Wrap the graft with a grafting twine, tape, or strip, then seal it with grafting wax or grafting paint. 2

Wedge Graft

I like this technique and use it mostly. The local citrus nursery now uses it on thin skewer thickness plants with single node "chips". As before for a rooted cutting, it is necessary to pull upwards with the left hand while applying downward pressure with the cutting blade at the right angle. Otherwise the pressure will break the roots off.

This time two cuts are made, the bottom cut more like 45 degrees. The scion needs a long cut on one side and a short 45 degree one on the other to roughly match the slot.

Make sure the angle stays constant with only a firm pressure
Use a rocking forward-back motion, not a hard shove
Try not to "scoop" - no curved cuts!
Try to cut the scion with a "flat" cut without scooping
Practice on scrap cuttings for you will need lots of practice
Un-rooted cuttings from pencil to finger thickness will do
Remember, tough tape can pull "soft" wood in to close gaps!!! 3

Here is a picture sequence which may help give the idea.

Bottom cut
Bottom cut
Long cut as before
Long cut as before
Scion long cut side
Scion long cut side
Short cut under flap
Short cut under flap
Locked in
Locked in
3-node sample scion
3-node sample scion
1-node will do
1-node will do
Fig. 14 Sequence Wedge Graft

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Whip and Tongue Graft

Whip (also called tongue or splice) grafting is particularly useful for grafting relatively small material 1/4 to 1/2 inch in diameter and where the scion and stock are of about the same size. It heals quickly and makes a strong union. The procedure in whip grafting is as follows: 1) Use scions and stocks of equal diameter. This gives maximum cambial contact. 2) Collect scions while plants are dormant. Scions should be 1/4 to 1/2 inches in diameter, 1 foot in length, and contain a minimum of 2 to 3 buds. The scions can be stored in a refrigerator until time for grafting. 3) Cut off the stock with a long, smooth, sloping cut, 1 to 2 1/2 inches. This cut should be made with one stroke of the knife to leave every surface smooth.
4) Starting two-thirds the way from the heel or base of the cut, make a second cleft cut through the stock to form a "tongue". The second cut can be made starting one-third of the distance from the tip of the first cut downward to the base. 5) Repeat both cuts with the scion. All buds must point upward and cuts on the scion and stock must match. 6) Slip the tongue of the scion inside the tongue of the under stock until the scion is firmly placed . It is best if cambiums contact on both sides. 7) Tie the graft to secure it further, then wax the union to prevent desiccation. 8) Remove tying material when the graft has united, or growth will be restricted. 1

Grafting Waxes

Grafting waxes serve two purposes: (1) to seal over the graft union and prevent loss of moisture, and (2) to prevent entrance of disease and decay-causing organisms. Good grafting waxes have these qualities: 1) Adhere to plant surfaces and are not washed off by rain. 2) Do not get brittle and crack. 3) Do not melt in hot weather. 4)Remain pliable to allow for swelling of the scion and enlargement of the stock.

There are three general types of waxes-hot, hard and cold. Hot or cold waxes are the most satisfactory for commercial operations. A hot wax may be made by heating 4 pounds resin, 1 pound of beeswax, 1 pint of raw linseed oil and 1 ounce of lampblack. Hard wax may be made by heating together 4 parts of resin, 2 parts of beeswax and 1 part of tallow. Cold waxes should be purchased commercially.

NOTE: The temperature of grafting wax is critical. It must be hot enough to flow but not so hot as to kill plant tissue. Recently, paint-like sealants have replaced wax in many areas because they are easier to use and require no heating. 2

Glossary

Topworking – The operation of cutting back the branches and top of an established tree and budding or grafting part of another tree on it.
Understock or stock – The part on which the scion is inserted; the part below the graft.
Rootstock – That part of a tree which becomes the root system of a grafted or budded tree.
Scion – A piece of last year's growth with three or four buds; the part inserted on the understock.
Cambium – The growing part of the tree; located between the wood and bark. At the season when bark separates freely, cambium will be both on the wood surface and on the inner bark.
Dormant – The condition of live trees at rest – as in winter.
Budding – A type of grafting that consists of inserting a single bud into a stock. It is generally done in late July and August, the latter part of the growing season.
Budstick – A shoot of the current season's growth used for budding. Leaves are removed, leaving 1/2 inch of leaf stem for a handle.
Cultivar – Denotes a cultivated type of plant.



Further Reading
Collecting and Storing Graft Wood from Texas A&M University
Grafting and Budding Nursery Crop Plants from North Carolina University Cooperative Extension pdf
Grafting and Propagating Fruit Trees from Penn State University Cooperative Extension pdf 12 pages
Plant Propagation Methodology from University of Florida pdf 32 pages
Is Top Working Right for You? from Texas A&M University pdf
Plant Propagation by Grafting and Budding from Pacific Northwest University Cooperative Extension pdf 20 pages
Propagating Muscadine Grapes from North Carolina University Cooperative Extension pdf 8 pages



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Propagation Page

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Bibliography

1 Hamilton, David F. and Midcap, James T. "Propagation of Woody Ornamentals by Grafting and Budding." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is Circular 416, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. First printed: June
1987; reviewed May 1999. Web. 17 May 2014.
2 "Grafting and Budding Nursery Crop Plants." ces.ncsu.edu. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, North Carolina State University, College of Agriculture and life Sciences. N.d. Web. 17 May 2014.
3 Ganmor, Wally. "Rind or Bark Graft." hibiscusworld.com. N.d. Web. 17 May 2014.
4 Ganmor, Wally. "Side graft." hibiscusworld.com. N.d. Web. 17 May 2014.
5 Stein, Larry. "Approach Grafting." aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu. Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Texas A&M University. N.d. Web. 19 May 2014.

Photographs

Fig. Cross section of a woody plant stem. N.d. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, North Carolina State University, College of Agriculture and life Sciences. ces.ncsu.edu. Web. 17 May 2014.
Fig. 2,3,4,7,8 Reed, D W. Budding Techniques. N. d. agrilifeextension.tamu.edu. Web. 17 May 2014.
Fig. 5 Ganmor, Wally. N.d. Sequence Rind or Bark Graft. N.d. hibiscusworld.com. Web. 17 May 2014.
Fig. 6 Bridge graft. N.d. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, North Carolina State University, College of Agriculture and life Sciences.  ces.ncsu.edu. Web. 17 May 2014.
Fig. 9 Cleft graft. N.d. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, North Carolina State University, College of Agriculture and life Sciences.  ces.ncsu.edu. Web. 17 May 2014.
Fig. 10 Inarching graft. N.d. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, North Carolina State University, College of Agriculture and life Sciences.  ces.ncsu.edu. Web. 17 May 2014.
Fig. 11 Ganmor, Wally. N.d. Sequence Side Grafthibiscusworld.com. Web. 17 May 2014.
Fig. 12 Splice graft. N.d. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, North Carolina State University, College of Agriculture and life Sciences. ces.ncsu.edu. Web. 17 May 2014.
Fig. 13 Saddle graft. N.d. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, North Carolina State University, College of Agriculture and life Sciences. ces.ncsu.edu. Web. 17 May 2014.
Fig. 14 Ganmor, Wally. N.d. Sequence Wedge Grafthibiscusworld.com. Web. 17 May 2014.

Published 12 Apr. 2014 LR. Updated 26 July 2014 LR.
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