Peach Pests
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 The leaffooted bug Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Fig. 1 x
The leaffooted bug Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)

Adult female Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Fig. 5 x
Adult female Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Female Peach Tree Borer Synanthedon exitiosa (Say)
Fig. 8 x
Female peach tree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa (Say)

Peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) female on right, male on left
Fig. 8b x
Peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) female on right, male on left

Larvae, pupa and adult of the lesser peachtree borer
Fig. 14 x
Larvae, pupa and adult of the lesser peachtree borer

White Peach Scale Infestation on Peach Tree
Fig. 19 x
White peach scale infestation on peach tree

Peach twig infested with scale
Fig. 23 x
Peach twig infested with San Jose Scale

Adult Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.).
Fig. 27
Adult Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.)

Pachnaeus litus, southern citrus root weevil
Fig. 31
Southern citrus root weevil,
Pachnaeus litus

Pachnaeus opalus, northern citrus root weevil Fig. 32 
Northern citrus root weevil, Pachnaeus opalus (Oliver, 1807)


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Pests in Florida peaches and nectarines occur throughout the season and attack both the trees and fruit. The primary pests of fruit are plum curculio (North Central and North Florida), stink bugs, and Caribbean fruit fly (Central and South Florida). Occasional fruit pests include scarab beetles, thrips, and nitidulid sap beetles. The major pests of the tree trunk and roots are the peach tree borer, which attacks the base and lower scaffold limbs of the tree; the lesser peach tree borer, which attacks scaffold branches; white peach scale; and San Jose scale. Since systematic research on pest damage to stone fruit has not been widely conducted in South Florida, damage caused by other pests specific to that area may increase as plantings expand, requiring additional management. 1



Stink Bugs
(Fig. 1)
Euschistus spp

Euschistus spp. are the most important stink bugs and Leptoglossus spp. are the most important leaffooted bugs infesting peach and nectarine. Species from both genera emerge from overwintering sites before or during bloom and fruit set. Early emerging adults often feed on winter-annual weeds. The bugs begin fruit feeding around the time that the fruit enters the shuck split stage. Stink and leaffooted bugs are piercing-sucking feeders. They use their saliva to penetrate their food material, dissolve the contents and then suck up the digesting mixture. Feeding damage in peach and nectarine destroys part of the developing fruit. As a result of this loss, the damaged portion of the fruit does not grow. As the healthy tissue continues to grow around the damaged area, this uneven growth forms the typical fruit injury known as catfacing. 2
The brown marmorated stink bug pdf 7 pages is a severe pest and has been detected in Florida, although it is not yet widespread. 4  

An adult brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) Euschistus servus (Say) adult female (left) and male (right)
Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Catfacing damage in peach
Fig. 4

Fig. 2. An adult brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say)
Fig. 3. Euschistus servus (Say) adult female (left) and male (right)

Further Reading

Plant Bugs and Stink Bugs from the University of Arkansas, Clemson University and University of Georgia pdf 4 pages
Stink Bugs and Leaffooted Bugs are Important Fruit, Nut, Seed and Vegetable Pests from the University of Florida pdf 6 pages
Brown Stink Bug Euschistus servus (Say) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from the University of Florida pdf 5 pages
Leaffooted Bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus (Linnaeus) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coreidae) from the University of Florida pdf 5 pages



Caribbean Fruit Fly
(Fig. 5)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae)

Since 1965, however, a new introduction of the pest into Florida has continued to spread and it now occurs in most of southern peninsular Florida, commonly north to Citrus and Volusia Counties, with isolated records north to Jacksonville (Ibrahim, 1980). Within the first three months following the discovery of A. suspensa in Florida in 1965, more than 14,000 adults were trapped in Dade County and identified by state entomologists. It has now developed into a major fruit fly problem for citrus and several other crops in Florida. 2 Use of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata is planned as part of a two-pronged attack on the Caribbean fruit fly involving the release of parasites and sterile Caribbean fruit flies.

Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Larva(e) Distribution of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), in Florida.
Fig. 6 Fig. 7
 
Fig. 6. Larvae
Fig. 7. Distribution of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), in Florida.

Further Reading
Caribbean Fruit Fly  from the University of Florida pdf 7 pages
A Parasitoid Wasp, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata from the University of Florida pdf



Borers are a problem throughout Central and North Florida. Uncontrolled populations ruin trees by severely girdling the scaffolds or tree trunk at the soil line. The lesser peach tree borer attacks the tree framework at injuries or at large pruning cuts. The lesser peach tree borer lays eggs earlier in the season, has more life cycles per summer than the peach tree borer (at least two), and requires sprays as soon as possible after fruit harvest. Borers in dooryard trees can be removed by hand digging under gum spots in late summer and fall. Remove small white grubs, which are the immature stages of the borer. 4


Peach Tree Borer
(Fig. 8)
Synanthedon exitiosa
(Say)

The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa (Say), is a very serious agronomic pest. The peachtree borer and the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes, account for more damage to peach trees than all other insect pest combined. The peachtree borer can damage the tree in two ways: girdling and inducing plant pathogens to invade the weakened tree. 5  

Peach Tree Borer Larva(e) Peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa). Late stage larva showing crochets of prolegs
Fig. 9 Fig. 9b
Larvae of the peach tree (crown) borer, Synanthedon exitiosa Damage to the base of a peach tree, caused by larvae of the peach tree (crown) borer, Synanthedon exitiosa
Fig. 10 Fig. 11
Damage to 1 year old tree in Thomason, Georgia Damage at the base of a young peach tree
Fig. 12 Fig. 13

Fig. 9. Peach Tree Borer Larva(e)
Fig. 9b. Peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa). Late stage larva showing crochets of prolegs Fig. 10. Larvae of the peach tree (crown) borer, Synanthedon exitiosa
Fig. 11. Damage to the base of a peach tree, caused by larvae of the peach tree (crown) borer, Synanthedon exitiosa
Fig. 12. Damage to 1 year old tree in Thomason, Georgia
Fig. 13. Damage at the base of a young peach tree

Lesser Peachtree Borer
(Fig. 14
Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson)

LPTB females lay their eggs on the trunk above ground, but infestations are higher on the scaffold limbs chiefly in areas previously injured by machinery, disease, or weather, and in crotches or under loose bark. LPTB larvae are similar in appearance, feeding habits, and damage to PTB larvae, although LPTB are somewhat smaller and do not feed below ground. 6 Recent research has shown that entomophagous nematodes are very efficacious against both species of peachtree borers. The peachtree borer is especially susceptible as it feeds in the moist areas around the root crown. The lesser peachtree borer is harder to control because the nematodes need moisture to survive and the scaffold limbs are not moist enough. The search for methods to circumvent this problem to achieve borer biological control is ongoing. 6

Lesser Peachtree Borer Larva(e) Gummosis caused by the lesser peachtree borer Damage by the lesser peachtree borer Damage by the lesser peachtree borer
Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18

Fig. 15. Lesser peachtree borer (Synanthedon pictipes) larva(e)
Fig. 16. Gummosis caused by the lesser peachtree borer
Fig. 17,18. Damage by the lesser peachtree borer

Further Reading
Peach Tree Borers in the Home and Commercial Peach Orchard from the University of Florida pdf
Peachtree Borer from USDA-ARS, University of Arkansas and University of Georgia pdf
James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Lesser Peachtree Borer from USDA-ARS, University of Arkansas and University of Georgia pdf



White Peach Scale
(Fig. 19)
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona
(Targioni)

This insect is an important economic pest of peach trees as well as woody ornamentals in the southeastern United States. In the early part of this century, white peach scale destroyed numerous peach orchards in Florida and completely decimated a grove of 10,000 peach trees in south Georgia. 7
Predators. In Florida, several predators feed on white peach scale. Primarily, these species are ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccindellidae), and common lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Some gall midges, (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) also attack white peach scale. 7

Adults and immatures of the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) Adult female white peach scales, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) Adult male white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni)
Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22

Fig. 20. Adults and immatures of the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni)
Fig. 21. Adult female white peach scales, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni)
Fig. 22. Adult male white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni)

Further Reading
White Peach Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Diaspididae) from the University of Florida pdf



San Jose Scale
(Fig. 23)
Quadraspidiotus perniciosus


San Jose scale is a much smaller species that can cause more severe dieback of branches in a shorter period of time than white peach scale. Infested branches appear silvery and grow poorly. 4 San Jose scale is a piercing sucking insect that can be devastating to trees if populations are allowed to establish. After hatching, the female probes through the bark and sucks plant juices for food. About one week after inserting her mouthpart, she will develop a waxy coating. Once this is developed, she cannot be killed by insecticidal poisons. The hatch does not occur all at once, which further limits the effectiveness of poisons. San Jose scale appears as grayish, raised waxy spots on the tree bark. Unlike the larger white peach scale that can be easily spotted in the late summer because of its snowy white male populations, San Jose scale is not easy to see. However, populations can be confirmed by slicing a small sliver of bark off at the cambial layer and observing purplish dots on the limb where the female has been feeding (Fig. 26). 8  

Close up of adult female Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, showing circular grey scale San Jose scale (Diaspidiotus perniciosus) (Comstock). Adult(s) San Jose scale on the bark with exposed red coloration where the female has probed and is feeding in the cambium.
Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26

Fig. 24. San Jose scale (Diaspidiotus perniciosus) (Comstock). Close up of adult female Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, showing circular grey scale
Fig. 25. San Jose scale (Diaspidiotus perniciosus) (Comstock). Adult(s)
Fig. 26. San Jose scale on the bark with exposed red coloration where the female has probed and is feeding in the cambium

Further Reading
San Jose Scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus) from the Utha State University Cooperative Extension pdf 5 pages



Root Weevils
Pachnaeus litus and Pachnaeus opalus and Diaprepes abbreviates

As increasing numbers of orchards are planted in former citrus groves, root weevils, such as blue green weevils Pachnaeus litus (Fig. 31) and Pachnaeus opalus (Fig. 32) and diaprepes (Diaprepes abbreviates) root weevil (Fig. 27), have been found on peach root systems. These insects can be responsible for tree decline and death in peaches as well as in citrus crops. The most damaging stage of both types of root weevils is the larval stage, at which time they can weave their way through the root system, creating extensive "galleries" or mazes of damage. Pachnaeus opalus is found in the northern areas of Florida and Pachnaeus litus is found in southern Florida. 6
 
Egg mass of Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), on citrus leaf Damage notching on leaves by Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.).
Fig. 28 Fig. 29
Damage to citrus tree roots by Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.).
Fig. 30

Fig. 28. Egg mass of Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), on citrus leaf
Fig. 29. Damage - notching on leaves - by Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.)
Fig. 30. Damage to citrus tree roots by Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.)

Further Reading
Diaprepes Root Weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus from the University of Florida pdf 5 pages
Field Diagnosis of Citrus Root Weevil Damage from the University of Florida pdf 4 pages
 

Other Pests more common in Central and North Florida
Plum curculio from University of Florida, University of Georgia and University of Arkansas pdf Plum curculio from Clemson University pdf



Further Reading
Insect Management in Peaches from the University of Florida pdf 6 pages
Florida Subtropical Peaches: Production Practices from the University of Florida pdf 13 pages 2017 Southeastern Peach, Nectarine, and Plum Pest Management and Culture Guide from the University of Georgia Extension pdf 73 pages
Stone Fruit Insect Management form the University of Florida ext. link

Bibliography

1 Olmstead, Mercy, Chaparro, Jose, Andersen, Pete, Williamson, Jeff and Ferguson,James. "Florida Peach and Nectarine Varieties." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is Circ. 1159, a publication of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension First published November 1995 under the title, "Peaches and Nectarines for Central and North Florida." Revised May 2013 and June 2016. Web. 5 Feb. 2017.
2
Weems, H. V., Heppner, Jr., J. B., Fasulo, T. R. and Nation, J. L. "Caribbean Fruit Fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae)." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is EENY-196 (originally published as DPI Entomology Circulars 38 and 260), one of a series of Featured Creatures from the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Published March 2001. Reviewed July 2014. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.
3
Mizell, Russell F. III. "Stink Bugs and Leaffooted Bugs Are Important Fruit, Nut, Seed and Vegetable Pests." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is ENY-718, one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date Oct. 2004. Revised June 2008. Reviewed Jan. 2015. Web. 5 Feb. 2017. 
4
Olmstead, M., Chaparro, J., Williamson, J. G., Rouse, R., Mizell, R., Harmon, P. and Ferguso, J. "Florida Subtropical Peaches: Production Practices." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is HS1109, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Publication July 2007. Revised Aug. 2013. Web. 7 Feb. 2017.
5
Strickland, Stacy, J. "Peachtree Borer, Synanthedon exitiosa (Say) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Sesiide)." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is EENY-260 (IN524), one of a series of Featured Creatures from the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Published Jan. 2002. Reviewed Mar. 2011. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.
6
Mizell, Russell F. III. "Peach Tree Borers in the Home and Commercial Peach Orchard." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is ENY-691 (IN489), one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date Dec. 1985. Revised Nov. 2003. Reviewed Apr. 2012 and Jan. 2015. Web. 7 Feb. 2017.

7 Branscome, Deanna. "White Peach Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)." edis.ifas.ufl.edu.This document is EENY-076, one of a series of Featured Creatures from the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Published Aug. 2003. Revised July 2009 and Aug. 2012. Reviewed Jan. 2016. Web. 7 Feb. 2017.
8
Miller, E.P., Andersen, P.C., Williamson, J.G., Ferguson, J.J. and Bitter, J. "Growing Plums in Florida." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is HS895, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date Mar. 2005. Revised Apr. 2012 and Jan. 2016. Web. 7 Feb. 2017.

Photographs

Fig. The leaffooted bug Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.). N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 2 Tedders, W.L. An adult brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say). N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 3 Euschistus servus (Say) adult female (left) and male (right). N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 4 Catfacing damage to Peach. N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 5 Adult female Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa . Division of Plant Industry. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 6 Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) larvae. 2010. Florida Division of Plant Industry Archive, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. bugwood.org. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 7 Steck, G. J. and Sutton, B. D. Distribution of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), in Florida. N.d. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Plant Industry. freshfromflorida.com. Web. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 8 Solomon, James. Female peach tree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa (Say) 2002. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 8b Ellis, H.C. Peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) female on right, male on left. 1999. University of Georgia. bugwood.org. Under(CC BY 3.0 US). Updated 2002. Web. 6 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 9 Cranshaw, Whitney. Peachtree borer larva(e), Synanthedon exitiosa (Say). 2010. Colorado State University. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 9b Cranshaw, Whitney. Peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa). Late stage larva showing crochets of prolegs. 2010. Colorado State University. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Updated 2011.  Web. 6 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 10 Nelson, Eugene E. Larvae of the peach tree (crown) borer, Synanthedon exitiosa. 2008. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 11 Nelson, Eugene E. Damage to the base of a peach tree, caused by larvae of the peach tree (crown) borer, Synanthedon exitiosa. 2008. bugwood.org. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 12 Ellis, H. C. Peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa). Damage to 1 year old tree in Thomason, Georgia. 1999. University of Georgia.  bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Updated 2002. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 13 Solomon, James. Peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa). Damage at the base of a young peach tree. 1999. USDA Forest Service. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Updated 2001. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 14 Larvae, pupa and adult of the lesser peachtree borer. N.d. Universtity of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 15 Lesser Peachtree Borer Larva(e). 2003. Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Updated 2011. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 16,17,18 Younce, Carroll E. Lesser Peachtree Borer Damage. 2003. USDA Agricultural Research Service. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Updated 2011. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 19 White Peach Scale Infestation on Peach Tree. 2003. Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series. bugwood.orgUnder (CC BY 3.0 US). Updated 2011. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 20 Buss, Lyle J. Adults and immatures of the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni). N.d. Universtity of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 21 Buss, Lyle J. Female of the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni). N.d. Universtity of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 22 Buss, Lyle J. Male of the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni). N.d. Universtity of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 16 Sept. 2014. Fig. 23 Peach twig infested with San Jose Scale. N.d. Utha State University Cooperative Extension. utahpests.usu.edu. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 24 Close up of adult female Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, showing circular grey scale. 2004. Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft Archive, Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft. bugwood.orgUnder (CC BY 3.0 US). Updated 2016. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 25 Adult of San Jose scale in the field. 2006. United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs Archive, USDA Agricultural Research Service. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Updated 2011. Web. 17 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 26 San Jose scale on the bark with exposed red coloration where the female has probed and is feeding in the cambium. N.d. Universtity of Florida. Fig. 27,29,30 Pena, Jorge. Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.). N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 17 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 28 Butler, Jerry F. Egg mass of Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), on citrus leaf. N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 17 Sept. 2014. Fig. 31 Southern Citrus Root Weevil, Pachnaeus litus. N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 17 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 32 Payne, Jerry A. Northern Citrus Root Weevil, Pachnaeus opalus (Oliver, 1807). 2003. USDA Agricultural Research Service. bugwood.org. Web. 17 Sept. 2014. 

Published 15 Sept. 2014 LR. Last update 24 Apr. 2017 LR
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