From the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia, inc.
by Toger Goebel

Seasons in Australia are opposite to those in the US. Summer is Dec. Jan. Feb. Autumn is Mar. Apr. May. Winter is June July Aug. Spring is Sept. Oct. Nov.

Pollination Requirements of Some Tropical Crops

Abiu
Flowers are bisexual. Some self-incompatibility may occur. Insect pollination appears useful.

Acerola
Flowers are bisexual. Flowers appear to have a low degree of self pollination. Insects (bees and flies) are useful. Flowers produce nectar.

Allspice
Flowers bisexual but trees function as male or female. Honey bees are recommended.

Avocado
Flowers bisexual but function as male and female at different times over a two day period. Some varieties are self compatible within the variety, others need other varieties that produce compatible pollen. Flowers produce nectar. Honeybees and native bees recommended.

Black Sapote
Flowers bisexual. Some trees have flowers that are self incompatible. Single trees not recommended.

Banana
Female flowers are produced first followed by male ones. Cultivated types do not require pollination. Wild types are pollinated by birds, bats and insects. Flowers produce nectar.

Betel Nut
Separate male and female flowers on the same flower clusters. Insects and wind likely to cause pollination

Breadfruit
Male and female flowers on each tree. Seedless type (breadfruit) do not require pollination. Seeded type (breadnut) is likely to be wind pollinated.

Brazil Nut
No information on pollination available.

Cocoa
Flowers are bisexual but appear to be self incompatible. Pollination by very small insects - midges and ants.

Carambola
Flowers bisexual and incompatible. Some varieties are self compatible within the variety while others rely on pollen from other varieties. Flowers are highly attractive to insects. Bees recommended.

Cashew Nut
Bisexual and male flowers are produced in the same panicle. Insect pollination is necessary. Flowers produce nectar.

Cardamon
Flowers consist of numerous bisexual florets that are self-sterile. Pollination by honeybees recommended.

Carob
Most trees have either male or female flowers. Some trees have male flowers and bisexual flowers. Cross pollination, possibly by wind.

Cassava
Male and female flowers on the same panicle. Insects most likely cause pollination.

Casimiroa
Flowers are bisexual but often incompatible within the variety. Pollinator varieties recommended. Bees recommended. Flowers produce nectar.

Cherimoya
Flowers are bisexual and self-fertile but female parts are receptive before the pollen is released. Very small insects are thought to act as pollinators.

Cinnamon
Flowers bisexual, likely to be pollinated by very small insects.

Citrus
Flowers mostly bisexual. Lemon and lime may have some male flowers. Washington navel flowers do not produce pollen and do not require pollination. Honeybees are recommended. Citrus flowers produce nectar.

Cloves
Flowers are bisexual. Cross pollination by bees appears necessary. Flowers produce nectar.

Coconut
Male and female flowers on each panicle. Most varieties are not self pollinating as male flowers open before the female ones. Dwarf varieties appear to be self-fruit-setting as flowers overlap. Insects and wind appear to cause cross pollination. Flowers produce nectar.

Cofffee
Flowers bisexual. and usually self fertile. Bees may increase yields. Flowers produce nectar.

Date Palm
Male and female flowers on separate trees. Cross pollination to a limited extent by wind. As no nectar is produced, bees collecting pollen from male flowers are not attracted to female flowers.

Durian
Flowers bisexual and open at night and early morning. Pollinated by bats, moths and possibly bees. Flowers produce nectar.

Duku
Flowers bisexual with sterile pollen. Fruit sets parthenocarpically.

Feijoa
Flowers bisexual, some being self-fertile, others require cross pollination with other trees.

Fig
Varieties produce only female flowers that do not require pollination to set fruit. Smyrna figs require a special pollination variety and cross pollination by a small wasp.

Granadilla
Flowers are bisexual and self-fertile, but require insect or mechanical transfer of pollen from male part to female part. Hand pollination at 7 to 9 a.m. advised.

Guava
Flowers bisexual but require insect transfers of pollen. Honeybees are recommended. Flowers produce nectar.

Inga Bean
Flowers bisexual but possibly of low self compatibility. Heavy flower drop with little or no fruit set in early years of flowering.

Jakfruit
Male and female flowers on same tree. Cross pollination by wind, rain or insects or others required for good fruit formation.

Jojoba
Male and female flowers on separate plants. Pollination by wind. No nectar produced.

Jujube
Flowers bisexual with pollen released before female part is receptive. Pollination by bees is recommended. Flowers produce nectar.

Kola Nut
Trees produce bisexual and or male flowers. Pollination by bees recommended as only pollen from male flowers is viable.

Longan
Male and bisexual flowers on some panicles. Pollination by bees recommended. Flowers produce nectar.

Loquat
Flowers bisexual. Pollination by honeybees recommended. Flowers produce nectar.

Lychee
Flowers male, female and bisexual. Male flowers often open first followed by female and bisexual flowers and some male flowers. Initial heavy flower drop (males) often causes concern. Pollination by honeybees recommended. Flowers produce nectar.

Macademia
Bisexual florets in racemes. Pollen released before female part is receptive. Pollination by honeybees recommended. Flowers produce nectar.

Mango
Bisexual and male flowers appear on panicles. Insects recommended for pollination. Ratio of male to bisexual flowers varies greatly within varieties. Flowers produce nectar.

Mammea
Flowers bisexual. No pollination recommendations.

Mammey Sapote
Flowers bisexual and possibly pollinated by small insects. Flowers produce nectar.

Mombin
Flowers appear bisexual but have poor self-compatibility. Plantings of multiple varieties and insect pollination recommended.

Mulberry
Separate male and female flowers in varying amounts on most trees with some varieties producing only male or female flowers on the tree. Honeybees visit male flowers but pollination by wind is suspected.

Natal Plum
Flowers bisexual. Different varieties have male or female functional flowers, giving a result of poor fruit set in many plants.

Nutmeg
Mostly male and female flowers on different trees while some trees have bisexual flowers. Pollination by small insects is most likely.

Oil Palm
Male and female flower clusters on the same plant but are functional at different times. Pollination by insect or wind.

Pawpaw
Male, female flowers on separate trees (dioecious) or bisexual flowers only (hermaphrodite). During winter some male trees produce bisexual flowers that may be cross pollinated or self pollinated. Pollination by moths most likely but birds, bees and others may assist.

Passionfruit
Flowers are bisexual but often self-sterile. Plants of different varieties to supply compatible pollen and insects (honeybees and native bees) are recommended to achieve good crops.

Pecan Nut
Male and female flowers on each plant. Wind pollinated. Some varieties are self-fertile, others are not.

Pepper
Flowers of male, female and bisexual may be on the same plant or on separate plants. Cross pollination is necessary. Rain is considered the main agent.

Perismmon
Flowers may be bisexual, male or female. Fruit of some varieties set without pollination while flowers of others require a pollination variety planted at regular intervals. Flowers produce nectar.

Pili Nut
Male and female flowers on separate trees. Cross pollination by insects necessary.

Pineapple
Flowers bisexual but not self-fertile. No pollination is required for fruit to form. Flowers produce nectar. Humming birds (not found in Australia) are regarded as the main pollinators where pollination is desired.

Pitaya
Flowers are bisexual but appear self incompatible. Plants of different varieties are suggested to be planted nearby and insects are possibly the main pollinating agents.

Purple Mangosteen
Male and female flowers are on separate trees. Male trees are rare. Female flowers do not require pollination to set fruit. The "seeds" are not true seeds.

Rambutan
Male, female and bisexual flowers on the same or separate trees: Some trees of seedling types may have male flowers only. Honeybees are recommended. Flowers produce nectar.

Rollinia
Flowers are bisexual. Small insects appear necessary to transfer pollen as pollen is released before female part is receptive.

Rubber Tree
Male and female flowers on the same panicle. Honeybees appear to aid pollination. Flowers produce nectar.

Sago Palm
Male and bisexual flowers on the same plant. Pollination not required as plants are propagated by suckers.

Sapodilla
Flowers are bisexual and may require insect visitation to set fruit. Flowers produce nectar.

Soursop
Flowers are bisexual but require insects to transfer pollen.

Star Apple
Flowers appear to be bisexual and pollinated by small insects.

Strawberry
Flowers are bisexual. Female parts receptive before pollen is released. Honeybees are recommended for adequate fruit size.

Sugar Cane
Flowers are bisexual and wind pollinated, but pollination is not required in normal cultivation.

Tamarind
Flowers are bisexual and most likely insect pollinated. Flowers produce nectar.

Tea
Flowers are bisexual but often self-sterile. Cross pollination is recommended for seed setting.

Tung Oil Nut
Each tree has mainly male or female flowers, though some trees may have small numbers of the other. Cross pollination by insects is necessary.

Turmeric
Flowers are bisexual but appear to be sterile. Fruit set not necessary.

Uvilla
Male and female flowers on separate trees. Cross pollination by insects is required.

Vanilla
Flowers are bisexual and self-fertile but require small insects to transfer pollen



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Bibliography

Goebel, Roger. "Pollination Requirements of Some Tropical Crops." rfcarchives.org.au. Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia. Jan. 1988. Web. 16 May 2015.

Published 16 May 2015 LR
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