Bacuripari - Garcinia macrophylla Mart.
Garcinia macrophylla
Fig. 1
Garcinia macrophylla

Close-up of female flower
Fig. 2
Close-up of female flower

Close-up of male flowers
Fig. 3
Close-up of male flowers

Garcinia Macrophylla Inflorescence
Fig. 4
Garcinia Macrophylla male inflorescence

Cross section showing one of the seeds
Fig. 5
Cross section showing one of the seeds

Garcinia Macrophylla Leaves
Fig. 6
Garcinia Macrophylla leaves

Leaf habit
Fig. 7
Leaf joint

Garcinia Macrophylla Tree
Fig. 8
Garcinia Macrophylla tree

Garcinia Macrophylla Trunk
Fig. 9
Garcinia Macrophylla Trunk

Fruit
Fig. 10
Garcinia Macrophylla fruit


Scientific name
Garcinia macrophylla Mart.
Common names
Bacuripari, Bacuripari-verdadeiro, bacuri, Bacuri-da-varzea in Brazil 3; Charichuela in Peru. 2
Synonyms
Garcinia macrophylla (Mart.) Planch. & Triana 3
Relatives
Madrono, Garcinia madruno; Bakupari, G. brasiliensis; Bacupari, G. gardneriana;  Lemon Drop Mangosteen, G. intermedia; Imbe, G. livinstonei; Button Mangosteen, G. prainiana; Gamboge, G. xanthochymus
Family
Clusiaceae (alt. Guttiferae)
Origin
Amazonian lowlands, Surinam and Brazil to northern Peru 2
Uses
Fruit
Height
26-40 ft (8-12 m) very slow grower
Plant habit
Pyramidal shape
Growth rate
Very slow grower
Leaves
Evergreen; simple; stiff; leathery
Flowers
White and slightly scented; 3 male and female flowers are home in small axillary clusters on separate trees 2
Fruit
Smooth or rough; rounded/conical; thick yellow ring; containing yellow latex 2
Season
May to August/October to November
Light requirement
Light to moderate shade 2
Cold tolerance
27-28 °F (-2.78º--2.22º C)
Invasive potential *
None reported



Reading Material

Bacuripari from Julia Morton's book Fruit of Warm Climates



There are over 240 Garcinia species, mostly from southeast Asia. Garcinia species from the Americas were once classified as Rheedia, but now all are considered Garcinia.

Sorting Garcinia Names from the Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database, University of Melbourne, Australia ext. link

Wherever bacurí, bacuripari or other Rheedia sp. are grown, the flavor is considered excellent. Although not superior to mangosteen in terms of flavor or edible flesh percentage, these other species have better adaptation to varied climatic and edaphic conditions, allowing for their production in many regions. The latex in both of these fruit can be a major obstacle to commercialization, because those unfamiliar with the consumption of these fruit are likely to ingest it, leading to an unpleasant taste experience. Silva (1991) reports that bacurí fruit can be stored a few days after harvest to reduce the amount of latex in the fruit. There has been little selection for superior clones among either bacurí or bacuripari, although there is considerable variation present among seedling trees. 1

Origin

The bacuripari is native to the Amazonian lowlands, Surinam and Brazil to northern Peru where it grows as an understory tree. 1

Description
The bacuripari is outstanding because it grows and produces a significant crop in shaded conditions (Campbell 1983). The trees are also tolerant of full sun and wind exposure, making them more adaptable to varied climates than the mangosteen. There is considerable variation in fruit quality among bacuripari from different regions of South America, and there may be different species involved. 1
The fruit is not much esteemed but widely eaten and sold in native markets. The bacuripari was introduced into Florida in 1962 and planted at the Agricultural Research and Education Center in Homestead, at Fairchild Tropical Garden and in several private gardens. One tree fruited in 1970, another in 1972, and the latter has continued to bear. 2

Leaves
Leaves are stiff, leathery, lanceolate-oblong or broad-lanceolate leaves, 12 to 18 in (30-45 cm) long and 3 to 7 in (8-18 cm) wide, pointed at both ends, with numerous lateral, nearly horizontal veins. New foliage is maroon. 2

Flowers
The 4-petalled, male and female flowers are home in small axillary clusters on separate trees, the male on delicate stalks to 1 1/2 in (4 cm) long and having numerous stamens, the female on thick, short stalks and sometimes having a few stamens with sterile anthers. In Florida, flowers appear in April and May and a second time in August and September. 2

Fruit
Fruit are variable in shape, averaging 4 to 5 cm in diameter and 5 to 6 cm in length. The fruit have a thick, hard outer wall containing a bitter latex, as in bacurí. Inside the hard shell is a white, creamy flesh surrounding 3 to 4 large seeds. The flesh is scanty in comparison to mangosteen or bacurí. 1
Fruits are in season from May to August and again in October and November. Some 15-to 20-year-old trees have produced 100 to 200 fruits when there have been no adverse weather conditions. 2

Pollination
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required. 2

Propagation
Trees are propagated by seed and may require 7 to 10 years to come into production. 1 Seeds have remained viable for 2 to 3 weeks but require several weeks to germinate. 2

Food Uses
Fruit eaten raw or made into jams


List of Growers and Vendors
Bibliography

1 Campbell, R.J. 1996. "South American fruits deserving further attention." hort.purdue.edu/newcrop.  J. Janick (ed.), Progress in new crops, p. 431-439. ASHS Press, Arlington, VA.  Web. 14 March 2014.
Morton, J. "Bakupari." hort.purdue.edu. Fruits of warm climates. p. 309–310. 1987. Web. 12 Mar. 2014.
 Lorenzi, Harri, Bacher, Luis, Lacerda, Marco and Sartori, Sergio. Brazillian Fruits & Cultivated Exotics (for consuming in natura). Brazil. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA. 2006. Print.

Photographs

Fig.1,2,5,10 Broson, Eric, I likE plants!Garcinia macrophylla. 2009.  flickr.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 29 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 3 Zavadil, Vojtěch. Close-up of male flowers. N.d. tropical.theferns.info. Under (CC-BY-SA-3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0). Web. 14 Mar. 2017.
Fig. 4,6,7,8,9 Kwan. Garcinia macrophylla, Clusiaceae. 2010. natureloveyou.sg. Web. 12 March 2014.

UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas

Published 12 Mar. 2014 LR. Last update 14 Mar. 2017 LR
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