From the Archives
of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia, inc.
by David K. Chandlee
A Guide to
The fifty species of Artocarpus are
mostly large trees of the tropical everwet zone, or they are from areas
that have a relatively mild monsoon climate; that is with a short dry
season. They are usually found below 1000 metres above sea level in the
rainforests, though several species may occur up to 1600 m (5000 feet).
In Borneo, the area where we particularly studied them, the average
height of the forest canopy is about 45 m (150 feet), and Artocarpus
trees in these forests reach about that height. They range from 20 m to
65 m height. The majority of the species are evergreen, though there
are a few that are deciduous, for example Artocarpus dadah. Under
cultivation, however, most trees are semi-deciduous, that is they will
lose leaves if there is cool or dry weather. They will also drop their
fruit at these times. The somewhat erratic rainfall in North
Queensland, as well as the mild winter (Mean Minimum for July at El
Arish is 14.7°C.) result in a matching erratic growth pattern
Although one species of Artocarpus,
the breadnut (A. communis),
grows abundantly in the swamp forests of New Guinea, they are found
mainly on level or sloped ground in various soils - heavier soils in
tropical areas but some lighter soils as well.
In most species the leaves are arranged spirally and the twigs are very
stout. There is one species, A.
(Tawak) - which has pinnate leaves, but most species have simple leaves
on the mature tree. Like many rainforest tree genera though, Artocarpus sapling
or juvenile leaves can be very large and dissected in appearance. A. elasticus
(Mendi) can have these leaves triply pinnatifid (i.e. lobed like Philodendron selloum)
and up to 200 cm (6½ feet) long. Later, the leaves become
smaller and entire in shape, with no lobes.
in the two cauliflorous species (which bear fruits on the trunk and
larger branches), the Jakfruit and Chempedak, the size of the leaves
and twigs correspond to the size of the fruit. Large-fruited trees
usually have stout twigs and large leaves, while small-fruited trees
have thin twigs and small leaves.
The fruits are born with the
male inflorescence among the foliage. As male inflorescences drop to
the ground and rot, small flies breed in them. These flies pollinate
the female inflorescence, thus establishing a brief symbiotic
relationship. The fruit structure is called a syncarp - an aggregate
fruit something like a strawberry. The syncarp is an advanced
evolutionary fruit structure in the flowering plants. In it, the
perianths (various floral organs) are united and reduced in number, and
the many carpels form a single 'fruit.' Jarrett considers that the Artocarpus
represent "a highly specialized evolutionary end-point" in the
development of the syncarp.
fruits are primarily adapted for distribution by arboreal mammals such
as monkeys, squirrels and civet-cats. Ridley 1
suggests that the huge
fruits of jakfruit and chempedak are eaten by forest ungulates such as
wild cattle, pigs, and elephants, which can easily reach them.
at a map of South East Asia, notice that the island of Borneo is
centrally located. Although the different species occur over different
areas, most species occur in Borneo because of overlapping
distribution. This is where we did most of our research and collecting.
Figure 1 illustrates the area where most of the fruits grow naturally.
The Sunda Shelf, the largest Continental Shelf in the world, is the
area from which rise the great islands of Borneo, Sumatra and Java, as
well as a portion of mainland Asia, including the Malay Peninsula,
lower Thailand, lower Burma, and southern Vietnam. Separate from the
Sunda Shelf are the Philippines (except Palawan) and eastern Indonesia
and New Guinea. During the Ice Ages the Shelf was exposed above the
sea, and plants 'migrated' across the great shelf through the vast
forests which covered it.
Drawing of the region of the Sunda Shelf
wide diversity of the fruits of the Artocarpus, with their different
colours, textures, and flavours, offers the tropical gardener or farmer
the opportunity to grow a group of beautiful exotic trees which will
provide his family with ample crops of delicious dessert and starchy
food over a long season. The fact that all these fruits are, at some
time, available in markets near their natural habitats, indicates that
they can also provide income to growers in many countries.
of the Artocarpus
generally fruit reliably and quite heavily, even, for
example, in Asia when durians (Durio spp.) and other seasonal fruits
are still available. The size of fruit varies
depending on which part of the tree it is borne. All Artocarpus should
be picked from the tree and not allowed to fall to the ground.
all the members of the genus are fast growing trees which don't require
a lot of care. They do better in rich soils, however, and they need
plenty of water, especially if there is a fruit crop on; they will
require irrigation. Most species like semi-shade when they are young
and they should be protected from cold snaps in winter. Propagation is
by seed exclusively except for seedless breadfruit, which is by root
cuttings. The seeds have no dormant period, and so must be planted
immediately, or if to be shipped, packed in a suitable damp medium such
as sawdust. Jakfruit, chempedak, and marang have now been approach- and
cleft-grafted successfully. If sap flow is too great, the scions may
have to be allowed to harden, or be 'bled' in advance.
descriptions of the species of Artocarpus
which have so far been
introduced into Australia and have edible fruits. They are grouped, the
members within each group being closely related. Refer to Table 1 for a
correlation of the scientific names, many common names, and the
distributions. This table can be used as a guide for visitors to or
residents of South East Asia.
breadfruit (A. communis)
is known from Polynesia of course, but it is
believed to have been introduced there long ago from the island of New
Guinea, the Moluccas, and Melanesia. There it is common in the forests.
can provide abundant and versatile crops which are useful both as
starchy vegetables and fruits. The leaves of the breadfruit are dark
green and deeply-incised, only slightly so in the breadnut, and 30 to
100 cm in length. The beautiful tree can be propagated by seed,
producing the breadnut, the seeds of which resemble jakfruit or
chempedak seeds in taste, or more commonly by root or stem cutting or
suckers or sucker marcots, producing the seedless varieties, a more
The green to yellow, smooth-skinned (seedless),
or covered with small hard protuberances (seeded), fruit can be 30 cm
in diameter. The flesh of the seedless varieties is white and smooth
throughout. It has a mild flavour varying with the degree of ripeness
at picking and at eating, and with the variety. The fully ripe fruit is
There are many varieties or clones, a few of which
have been introduced to Australia, and new varieties are continuing to
arise through back-crossing with seeded forms. Most varieties fruit
during January to April in North Queensland, however early varieties do
exist, and by planting both early and mid-to-late season varieties a
grower can have a continuous supply of the delicious starchy staple for
6 months or more.
Since they are susceptible to cold snaps, they
are restricted to areas free of these. They are difficult to grow south
of the high rainfall area around Tully (Lat. 18°S.), however
may survive in many warm coastal pockets further south. The breadfruit
is not too particular about soils but it does grow best if the soil is
enriched and it is well-watered. Maintaining a heavy crop requires
about a minimum of 50 mm of water per week.
There are many ways
to cook breadfruit; both the South Pacific Commission and the Pacific
Tropical Botanical Gardens have excellent booklets with numerous
and chempedak, the following fruit, are closely
related. The jakfruit is native to the rainforests of southern India
and is now cultivated throughout the tropics. It is the largest tree
fruit in the world but some of the best varieties are the small
finer-fleshed or crisp ones. There is, for example, a small crisp
variety only 20 to 25 cm (8-10") long, with a good flavour and a high
proportion of edible part. Some fruits have bright orange or pink
flesh. With future selection of varieties it should be possible to have
jakfruit available all year in many areas.
The jak was the first
Artocarpus introduced into Australia and is now well-established.
Because it is well-known, only a few points about harvesting will be
Maturity of jakfruit can be determined by several
characteristics: a dull hollow sound is produced when the fruit is
tapped by the fingers; the last leaf on the fruit stem (peduncle) turns
yellow; the fruit spines become well developed and move apart from one
another; the spines yield to moderate pressure. Finally, an aroma
develops. When you are picking jakfruit for distant markets, the spines
should be developed and widely-spaced but the fruit should still be
firm and not have any aroma. If you are just using it at home all the
characteristics should be present in a fully mature fruit.
wild animals are a problem the fruits should be bagged on the tree.
This will also protect the fruit against insect attack. Another problem
with jakfruit is too many fruit! The solution? Pick your fruit green
and use it as a vegetable, preferably before the seed coat develops.
Test for this with a skewer. It can be used as a tender vegetable, with
herbs and spices, boiled, fried or roasted. The seeds of mature fruits
can be eaten boiled or roasted with other vegetables or separately, but
they must be peeled.
chempedak (A. integer),
which is widely cultivated in Malaysia and
Indonesia, is like a small cylindrical jakfruit, but the skin is almost
smooth with only small protrusions. The tree grows to 20 metres in
height in forests to 1200 m (4000 feet).
The fruit lacks the
annulus or ring at the base of the fruit around the peduncle that the
jak has. It has a similar internal appearance to the jak with smaller
segments of 2-3 cm across with flesh of a similar texture surrounding
each seed. The segments are attached to the central, inedible core.
There are two distinct types; the larger one is 30 to 45 cm in length
with pale yellow flesh, and the smaller type is 25 cm long with darker
yellow flesh. Both have a very rich, sweet, juicy flavour and creamy
texture with some fibre. The smaller variety is generally sweeter and
creamier. Compared with the jakfruit the chempedak is sweeter and has
less acidity. It has a strong aroma. Among the small chempedaks are an
orange-fleshed variety, which is a good-flavoured, sweet, creamy fruit
about 30 cm long, and a green-fleshed variety.
quite good chilled, and the Malays make an 'ice' out of it. The
immature fruits are used as a vegetable, but once again, before the
seed coat forms. When boiled in a soup with onions and seasonings it is
quite tender and flavoursome. Chempedak fritters with or without the
seed are deep-fried in batter and make a tasty dish. Chempedak requires
some microclimate establishment during the early years of the tree's
life. Apart from that it is easy to grow and will tolerate any soil. It
is also moderately tolerant of near-freezing temperatures.
hybrid, A. heterophyllus X integer, occurs
readily between the two
closely related species, and it combines the characteristics of the two
fruits in one fruit.
Mendi (A. elasticus),
also known by many other names, is in a group
closely allied with the following three fruits, the Pedalai, Pudau, and
Anjili. Mendi is a very large, distinctive tree in nature, strongly
buttressed and up to 65 metres in height. It is common-to-rare,
depending on the area, and grows mainly on clay soils. It occurs in
Borneo up to 1400 m altitude. It is also occasionally cultivated
throughout the Sunda Shelf. The large, beautiful leaves have already
been referred to (Introduction). These become ovate-elliptic and sized
60 by 35 cm on the mature tree. They are covered with very short hairs
on both sides and have a sandpapery feel. The yellowish-brown,
cylindrical-ovate fruit, up to 17 by 10 cm in size, is covered with
long fleshy, curly hairs like those on the pedalai, interspersed with
short protuberances. The soft, white-fleshed segments are quite sweet,
and the seeds may also be eaten roasted. Ripe fruit have a strong
aroma. The tree tolerates a short dry season, and is more cold
resistant than the pedalai. Individual trees react differently to the
vagaries of the North Queensland climate. Growth of the best tree at El
Arish, after 3½ years, has been rapid, up to 2m per annum.
Irrigation and microclimate establishment is recommended in the early
Pedalai (A. sericicarpus)
is locally abundant in the wet forests
throughout its reasonably wide distribution and is a large,
well-branched, strongly-buttressed tree growing to about 40m in height
when mature. It is found on quite steep hillsides, on clay soils, but
it also grows well near the coast. Although the digitate young leaves
with many lobes, can measure up to 180 by 70 cm, later the leaves of
the mature tree are elliptic to ovate and up to 70 by 50 cm.
globular fruit is about 15 cm in diameter, with an attractive bright
orange skin. Some of the small, soft protrusions sprout curly yellow
hairs 40 mm long, like a giant rambutan. Pedalai is similar to the
marang (A. odoratissimus)
inside but has a superior flavour, firmer
flesh, and slightly larger segments. The sweet creamy white flesh is
easy to eat, and the segments cling to the central core when the skin
is peeled off.
There is little aroma to the ripe fruit. The
seeds when fried in oil for a short time taste like peanuts, and they
can also be boiled or roasted.
Given the fact that the pedalai
is a very beautiful brightly-coloured fruit with little aroma, that the
flavour is sweet and delicious, and that the handsome buttressed tree
is easy to grow in a warm climate, it seems certain that it will become
better known around the tropical world. It grows best under light or
partial shade for the first three years. The tree is very fast growing,
the fastest of the Artocarpus, attaining up to 6 m in 3½
from seed. It does best on alluvial soils but also grows well on clay,
and on basalt soils.
Pedalai resembles breadfruit in having
little cold tolerance. Although there are trees surviving as far south
as Rockhampton (lat. 23ºS.), many trees are killed by about
6°C. Some seedlings, however, appear to have more cold
Pudau (A. kemando)
is a large, rare tree throughout the primary and
secondary forests of its area. The leaves are small (15 by 8 cm),
smooth above, rough below. It occurs in lowland and highland areas. In
the latter case it was found on alluvial clay soils at 1000 metres.
has a small round fruit, 4 cm in diameter, with smooth green skin like
chempedak, and there is not a lot to it (8 segments) but it is all
edible with little waste. It has a mild flavour without sweetness. The
pudau is unusual in that latex from the tree is edible in small
quantities. It tastes like coconut milk and is used as a sauce.
Although rare, the tree is widespread, and seems to favour swampy
ground. It is easy to grow.
is an evergreen tree to 70 m in height which grows in the
wet forests of the Western Ghats Mountains in southern India from sea
level to 1200 m (4000'). The juvenile leaves are pinnatifid, to 50 by
35 cm in size, while the mature leaves are 25 by 12 cm, elliptic to
The yellow to orange fruit, which is up to 8 cm across
and 400 g in weight, varies in shape from round to ellipsoid, and is
covered with closely set rigid protuberances like the marang, but
pointed. The flesh of the ripe fruit is dark yellow or reddish yellow
in colour, and of a subacid flavour. There are many of these delicious
mealy-textured segments which melt in your mouth. Apart from being
eaten out of hand, anjili may be fried. The seeds also are good fried,
and taste like peanuts.
So far the tree has proved easy to grow
in the Northern Territory, where it has attained 1.8 m in one year.
Attempts are also being made to reproduce it by vegetative means.
Tawak (A. anisophyllus)
is closely allied to the following fruit,
keledang (A. lanceifolius), and somewhat less related to the following
three fruits - marang or tarap, monkey jak, and pingan.
an evergreen tree to 45 m height, occurring occasionally throughout the
lowland and montane Dipterocarp forests of Borneo, southern Malay
Peninsula and southern Sumatra to an altitude of 1200 m (4000'). The
beautiful dark green, slightly rough leaves are unique in the
Artocarpus in being pinnate in the adult form. In juvenile plants these
may reach 150 cm long, and the individual pinnae are lobed.
golden-brown, round to oblong fruit are about 20 by 13 cm in size,
including the densely set, rigid, blunt spines with which it is
covered, just like the marang. The many small arils inside, light
orange in colour, firmer in texture and less sweet than marang and
pedalai, are delicious, and preferred by some to these fruits. The tree
is fast growing.
is a common tree in the Dipterocarp forests of parts
of the Sunda Shelf, occurring on sandy and clay soils to 1400 m (4500')
altitude. The evergreen tree has small buttresses and reaches 35 m in
height. The elliptic to ovate leaves (to 33 by 17 cm) are pinnate or
pinnatifid when juvenile, and slightly rough.
The round fruit is
12 to 15 cm across, orange-brown in colour, and is regularly divided or
'tiled' by small bumps. There are a small number of large, bright
orange, fleshy segments, which have a sweet taste well-liked by
Europeans. The core is thick.
(the Philippine name for the Borneo Tarap) is one of
the dominant early trees in secondary forests. It is consequently one
of the commonest trees in the northern 2/3 of Borneo now that most of
the forest has been logged. It has been introduced to Mindanao and
other islands in the past. In Borneo it grows to an altitude of about
1600 m (5000'). The attractive evergreen tree can attain 25 m in
height, and has dark green, broadly elliptic to ovate leaves up to 50
by 30 cm in size. Some adult leaves have two lobes while the juvenile
leaves are more lobed (pinnatifid), and both are covered with hairs
like a 'five o'clock shadow.'
The tarap fruit is round to oblong
in shape, large (up to 30 by 20 cm), and covered with hundreds of
closely set, blunt, green or brown spines which feel rough. The small
(10 mm) seeds are surrounded by the creamy white flesh of the many pulp
segments, which cling to the small core when the skin is removed. The
flavour is sweet and juicy with a tang to it. It has a fibreless
melting texture, and the fruits develop a strong aroma after they
ripen. The spines should snap when the fruit is ripe; they bend and
exude latex when not ripe. Like all Artocarpus, the
marang must be
picked as it will not fall. The seeds are good to eat when fried. The
fresh fruit can also be used in pies, cakes and to flavour ice cream.
Since marang grows in regions with abundant and equally distributed
rainfall, it will require irrigation if grown in a monsoon climate.
There is a marang tree growing successfully in a favoured location near
Yeppoon, central Queensland (lat. 23°S.) which has been exposed
about 4°C. repeatedly, so the tree's tolerance of cold is
substantial, and with proper microclimate conditions it should prosper.
In rich soil in North Queensland it has attained 3 metres growth per
Jak (A. rigidus)
is a semi-deciduous tree of the wet dipterocarp
forests, to an altitude of 900 m (3000'), and of the mixed swamp
forests, throughout the Sunda Shelf. It is buttressed and grows to a
height of 35 m, and prefers heavy clay or peat soils. Although it is
rare in nature it, is cultivated in Malaya and Java. The dark green,
shiny elliptic to ovate leaves are smooth above and up to 32 by 15 cm
in size. Juvenile leaves are pinnatifid. Monkey jak changes its leaves
about twice a year, after dry weather, and flowers are borne on the new
The round fruit is yellow to dull orange or golden-brown
and 11 to 15 cm in diameter, and has a brush-like surface covered with
closely set stiff conical spines like marang. The thick skin is white
inside with inedible 'rags', and only a few large golden-orange
segments of waxy texture cling to the thick core. It has a pleasant
sweet-sour taste when fully ripe, but is usually eaten before this
stage. It is said to give a rawness to the mouth. The fruit takes six
months to develop and ripen on the tree, which would preclude its
growth in a cool climate.
Since monkey jak has two subspecies
and is so widespread in its distribution, it should be possible to make
selections of good varieties, with the best characters, for future
Pingan (A. sarawakensis)
is a rare tree endemic to the forests of
Sarawak. The leaves resemble those of marang or tarap, having 'five
o'clock shadow' and being broadly elliptic to ovate and up to 60 cm
long, and in being lobed in the juvenile stage. The lobes, however, are
more pointed than those of A. odoratissimus. The leaves of pingan are
dark green with golden hairs on the petiole. The fruit is 7.5 to 10 cm
and round, being covered with orange-brown short stubby projections
like marang. Inside there are many small yellow segments which have a
good, sweet flavour.
Nothing is known of its specific
requirements, however it does grow slowly, tolerates clay soils, and
appreciates shade when young.
and the following four fruits - utu, lakuch, and selanking,
and to a lesser extent, kwaimuk, are a closely related group of
Artocarpus trees with small, opposite leaves, which do not differ
markedly from each other; however the fruits can distinguish them.
common and variable species, also called tampang, is widespread over
the Sunda Shelf. It is a deciduous tree growing in wet forests up to
900 m (3000') altitude. The tree, which can reach 35 m in height, has
obovate or elliptic-oblong dark green leaves to 30 by 17 cm in size,
the underside of which are reddish gold, with prominent darker veins.
yellowish-green, velvety-skinned, 5 to 8 cm fruit is almost round, with
deep pink or red flesh. Dadak needs selection, and may have promise.
is a beautiful smallish tree (to 30 m) from Sulawesi
and the Moluccas, growing up to 600 m (2000') above sea level. The tree
has small buttresses, and the small leaves (to 35 by 16 cm) are oblong
to elliptic with an entire edge. The main veins and lesser veins are
prominent beneath, and the top surface is green and glossy, giving the
tree a dense, shiny crown.
Utu fruits look like a small (12-15
cm) golden-brown jakfruit, being irregular or almost round, and covered
with small protuberances, or in some varieties, smooth and velvety. The
creamy-coloured flesh, however, is "eat-all", with no waste, and the
hard-shelled, large seeds can be roasted and eaten. The flavour of the
flesh is neither sweet (like most Artocarpus)
nor sour, but tangy and
very pleasing, reminiscent of yogurt. Can be used in the same way as
The area to which utu is endemic has a mild monsoon
climate, and this may help it adapt to Queensland's seasonal regime.
Growth is rapid and vigorous.
is a deciduous tree, to 20 m in height, of the wet,
semi-wet, and wet deciduous forests from northern India to southern
China. It grows to an altitude of 1900 m (6000') in areas where there
is a distinct dry season. The smooth, plain green leaves are elliptic,
oblong or ovate in shape, and up to 37 by 21 cm in size. Juvenile
leaves have slight lobes.
The fruit of lakuch is round or irregular
in shape and up to 12 cm across. The yellow skin is smooth and velvety.
The colour and taste of the flesh is unknown to the author.
well as being the most wide-ranging species on the Asian continent,
lakuch is also the most tolerant of cool temperatures and dry
conditions. However it is damaged by frost. It is frequently cultivated
for its fruit throughout its range and south as far as Bombay (lat.
19°6 N ), so it would seem well-suited to both tropical and
subtropical, but frost-free areas.
an evergreen tree which reaches 35 m tall, is occasional
but widespread in wet forests and savannah woodlands of much of South
East Asia, growing from sea level to 1600 m (5000') in clay-rich soils.
There are many subspecies and varieties. The leaves are small, elliptic
or with small lobes, to 23 by 9 cm, and dark green and smooth.
round or oval fruit, 6 by 4 cm or larger, has smooth, soft orange skin
and a sweet-acid orange flesh with few very small seeds. It is
(This name is also used to refer to other Artocarpus in
China, including the preceding fruit, A. nitidus).
small tree, A.
hypargyreus, a native of China, reaches 14 m in height,
and has an evergreen, dense, rounded canopy. It withstands frost. The
small elliptic leaves are up to 17 by 8 cm in size. The round to ovoid
fruit is 4 to 5 cm across, and has a yellow, finely-velvet surface. The
soft pulp surrounding the dozen seeds is reddish orange to red, and has
a melting texture and a subacid flavour. It is usually eaten fresh.
research for this article was done by the author and Lauren Gartrell.
Extensive use was made of Jarrett's monograph. Many thanks are due to
members of the following departments for their assistance or use of
facilities: Department of Agriculture, Sabah; Department of
Agriculture, Sarawak; Department of Forestry, Sarawak. Help was also
received from numerous individual Malaysians.
Jarrett, Frances M., 1959-60, Studies in Artocarpus and
Allied Genera, Jour. Arnold Arb., XL 1-37, 113-155, 298-368, XLI, 73-140
Browne, F.G., 1955, Forest Trees of Sarawak and
Anderson, J.A.R., 1980, A Checklist of the
Trees of Sarawak, Forest Dept.
Kohua, Na Lima, 1976, Breadfruit, Pacific
Tropical Botanical Garden
SPC Community Education Training Centre, 1983.
Breadfruit, South Pacific Commission, Fiji
Mendoza, and Hapitan, 1970, Harvesting Handling and Storage of Leading
Philippine Fruits, Dept. of AGronomy, University of Philippines
1. Ridley, 1940, The Dispersal of Plants
of the Artocarpus Genus
|A. anisophyllus Miq.
||Tawak, Entawak, Bintawak, Kelidang, Bakil,
||Borneo, S. Malay Peninsula, S. Sumatra
|A. communis Forst.
||South East Asia and South Pacific
|A. dadah Miq.
||Dadak, Tampang, Selanking dadak
||Sunda Shelf, lower Thailand
|A. elasticus Reinw. ex
||Mendi, Tekalong, Benda, Terap Togop, Ahbat,
Jerami, Ho, Aw, Ka aw
|A. heterophyllus Lamarck.
|| Jakfruit, Nangka
|| India, South East Asia (cult.)
|A. hirsutus Lamarck.
||Anjili, Hebhalsina, Ran-phunnas
|A. hypargyreus Han. ex
||Guandong and Hainan, China
|A. integer (Thunb.)Merr.
||Chempedak, Temedak, Nakan Pudau,
||Sunda Shelf, Sulawesi, Irian Jaya
|A. kemando Miq.
||Pudu, Selibut, Kudu
||S. Borneo, S. Sumatra, S. Malay Peninsula
|A. lakoocha Roxb.
||Lakuch, Barhal, Oahu, Myauklok, Hat lom,
||E. and N. India, Burma, Thailand, Laos
|A. lanceifolius Roxb.
||Keledang, Klidang, Keliput
||Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, N. and E. Borneo
|A. nitidus Trec.
||Selanking, Butong, Empatah, Sinojoh, Ma hat
Sampor, Cay Chay
||Sunda Shelf, N. Philippines, Bali to Timor
|A. odoratissimus Blanco
||Marang, Terap, Madang
||N. Borneo, S. Philippines
|A. reticulatus Miq.
|A. rigidus Bl
||Monkey jak, Pujan, Perian, Tampuni, Pussar,
||Sunda Shelf, S. Indochina
|A. sarawakensis Jarrett
|A. sericicarpus Jarrett
||Pedalai, Belalai, Gumihan, Terap
||Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi,