From the Manual of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits
by Wilson Popenoe
Annona cherimola Mill.
Pests and Diseases
"Deliciousness itself" is the phrase Mark Twain used to
characterize the cherimoya. Sir Clements Markham quotes an even more
flattering description :
"The pineapple, the mangosteen, and the
cherimoya," says Dr. Seemann, "are considered the finest fruits in the
world. I have tasted them in those localities in which they are
supposed to attain their highest perfection, - the pineapple in
Guayaquil, the mangosteen in the Indian Archipelago, and the cherimoya
on the slopes of the Andes, - and if I were called upon to act the part
of a Paris I would without hesitation assign the apple to the
cherimoya. Its taste, indeed, surpasses that of every other fruit, and
Haenke was quite right when he called it the masterpiece of Nature."
The cherimoya at its best
cherimoya is essentially a dessert fruit, and as such it certainly has
few equals. Although its native home is close to the equator, it is not
strictly tropical as regards its requirements, being, in fact, a
subtropical fruit, and attaining perfection only where the climate is
cool and relatively dry. At home it grows on plateaux and in mountain
valleys where proximity to the equator is offset by elevation, with the
result that the climate is as cool as that of regions hundreds of miles
to the north or south.
Commercial cultivation of the cherimoya
has been undertaken in a few places. This fruit has not, however,
achieved the commercial prominence which it merits, and which it seems
destined some day to receive.
That it should be unknown in most
northern markets, notwithstanding that it grows as readily in many
parts of the tropics and subtropics as the avocado, can only be due to
the inferiority of the varieties which have been disseminated, to
tardiness in utilizing vegetative means of propagation, and to
insufficient attention to the cultural requirements of the tree. The
best seedling varieties must be brought to light, they must be
propagated by budding or grafting, and a careful study made of
pollination, pruning, fertilization of the soil, and other cultural
details as yet imperfectly understood. There is no reason why, when
this has been done, cherimoya culture should not become an important
horticultural industry in many regions.
Experience in exporting
the fruit from Madeira to London, and from Mexico to the United States,
has shown that it can be shipped without difficulty. The demand for it
in northern markets, once a regular supply is available, is certain to
The cherimoya is a small, erect or somewhat spreading
tree, rarely growing to more than 25 feet high; on poor soils it may
not reach more than 15 feet. The young growth is grayish and softly
pubescent. The size of the leaves varies in different varieties; in
some they are 4 to 6 inches long, in others 10 inches. In California a
variety (originally from Tenerife, Canary Islands) with unusually large
leaves has been listed by nurserymen under the name Annona macrocarpa.
In form the leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate, sometimes obovate or
elliptic; obtuse or obtusely acuminate at the apex, rounded at the
base. The upper surface is sparsely hairy, the lower velvety tomentose.
The fragrant flowers are about an inch long, solitary or sometimes two
or three together, on short nodding peduncles set in the axils of the
leaves. The three exterior petals are oblong-linear in form, greenish
outside and pale yellow or whitish within; the inner three are minute
and scale-like, and ovate or triangular in outline. As in other species
of Annona, the stamens and pistils are numerous, crowded together on
the fleshy receptacle.
The fruit is of the kind known
technically as a syncarpium. It is formed of numerous carpels fused
with the fleshy receptacle. It may be heart-shaped, conical, oval, or
somewhat irregular in form. In weight it ranges from a few ounces to
five pounds. Sixteen-pound cherimoyas have been reported, but it is
doubtful whether they ever existed in reality. The surface of the fruit
in some varieties is smooth; in others it is covered with small conical
protuberances. It is light green in color. The skin is very thin and
delicate, making it necessary to handle the ripe fruit with care to
avoid bruising it. The flesh is white, melting in texture, and
moderately juicy. Numerous brown seeds, the size and shape of a bean,
are embedded in it. The flavor is subacid, delicate, suggestive of the
pineapple and the banana.
The cherimoya is sometimes confused with other species of Annona. W. E. Safford,1 who has studied the botany of this genus thoroughly, writes:
centuries the cherimoya has been cultivated and several distinct
varieties have resulted. One of these has smooth fruit, devoid of
protuberances, which has been confused with the inferior fruit of both Annona glabra and A. reticulata. The last two species, however, are easily distinguished by their leaves and flowers; Annona glabra, commonly known as the alligator apple or mangrove annona, having glossy laurel-like leaves and globose flowers with six ovate petals, and A. reticulata having long narrow glabrate leaves devoid of the velvety lining which characterizes those of the cherimoya."
1 In Bailey, Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture.
Annona Cherimola, Mill. is the Annona tripetala of Aiton; the plant which has been offered in California under the name A. suavissima is a horticultural form of A. Cherimola. (The orthography Anona Cherimolia was used until Safford showed that it is incorrect.)
country of origin of the cherimoya remains somewhat in doubt. Alphonse
DeCandolle, after weighing all the available evidence, said, "I
consider it most probable that the species is indigenous in Ecuador,
and perhaps in the neighboring part of Peru." The presence of the fruit
in Mexico and Central America since an early day has led other
botanists to assume that it might also be indigenous in the latter
countries. Recently Safford has re-sifted the evidence and has reached
the conclusion that "De-Candolle is in all probability correct in
attributing it to the mountains of Ecuador and Peru. The common name
which it bears, even in Mexico, is of Quichua origin . . . and
terra-cotta vases modeled from cherimoya fruits have been dug up
repeatedly from prehistoric graves in Peru."
The name by which
this fruit is known in Spanish-speaking countries, cherimoya or
chirimoya, is derived (as mentioned above, quoting Safford) from the
Peruvian name chirimuya, signifying cold seeds. The English frequently
spell the word cherimoyer. The name custard-apple is often used in the
British colonies; its application is not confined, however, to this one
species, but extends to other annonas.
The French use the name cherimolier, or more frequently anone. The name
cherimoya or one of its variants is sometimes applied to other species
habitat in South America, the cherimoya early spread northward into
Mexico; much later it passed into the West Indies, the southern part of
South America, and across the seas to the islands near the African
coast, to the Mediterranean region, and to India, Polynesia, and Africa.
present it is naturalized in many parts of Mexico and Central America.
Throughout this region it occurs most abundantly at elevations of 3000
to 6000 feet, occasionally ascending (in Guatemala) to 8000 feet. On
the seacoast it is not successful as a fruit-tree, and is rarely grown.
The regions which produce the finest cherimoyas in Mexico lie at
elevations of 5000 to 6000 feet and are characterized by comparatively
dry cool climates. Excellent cherimoyas are grown at Queretaro and in
the vicinity of Guadalajara. The fruit is highly esteemed in the
markets of Mexico City, where it sells at high prices. While not grown
commercially on a scale comparable with the avocado, its culture in
certain regions is important, and regular shipments are made to the
principal markets of the country.
In Jamaica, where the
cherimoya was introduced by Hinton East in 1785, there are now many
trees in the mountainous parts of the island. The fruit is highly
esteemed in the markets of Kingston. In Cuba it is almost unknown.
There are a few trees in Oriente Province and perhaps elsewhere, but
the markets of Habana are not familiar with it. It may be mentioned
that Annona reticulata is often called cherimoya in Cuba, which has led
some writers to assume wrongly that the true cherimoya is commonly
cultivated in the island.
In Argentina, cherimoya culture is
conducted commercially in several places, notably the Campo Santo
district in the province of Salta. The fruit is shipped to Buenos
Aires, where it is marketed at very profitable prices. In Brazil it is
not commonly grown; in fact it is not known in most parts of the
In 1897 M. Grabham wrote a short article in the
Journal of the Jamaica Agricultural Society on the cultivation of the
cherimoya in Madeira. He asserted that "many of the estates on the warm
southern slopes of the island, formerly covered with vineyards, have
now been systematically planted with the cherimoya" and went on to
state that "the fruits vary in weight between three and eight pounds,
exceptionally large ones may reach 16 pounds and over." This article,
which has been widely quoted, has been responsible for the current
belief that cherimoya culture in Madeira is more extensive than in any
other part of the world, and that exceptionally fine varieties have
Charles H. Gable, an American
entomologist and horticulturist who worked in the island during 1913
and 1914, has dispelled these illusions. Gable writes:
"I found the
cherimoya industry in Madeira very primitive indeed. No effort has been
made to commercialize the growing of this fruit. Most of the trees are
volunteers which have sprung up from dropped seeds, or else they have
been planted for shade, with perhaps a vague notion that they might
some day produce fruit. ... I do not know any one in Madeira (and I
have been over the entire island) who has more than a dozen trees in
bearing, and only a few have that many. Most of the important islanders
have at least one tree. ... At least 95 per cent of all those on the
island are seedlings. Occasionally old trees are top-worked by a method
of cleft-grafting, but this is not highly successful. . . . There is no
uniformity in the quality of the fruits. Every gradation is found
between smooth-surfaced and very rough fruits. In those which resemble
each other externally there may be great differences in quality,
acidity, number of seeds, and other characteristics. I never got so I
felt competent to pick out a good fruit in the market. . . . The rough
type attains the greatest size. The largest specimen I was able to find
weighed three and a half pounds. ... I hesitate to make an estimate,
but I do not believe more than a thousand dozen fruits are exported
from the island in a year. . . . The trees receive no intentional
cultivation. Vegetables are often planted beneath them. A species of
scale insect and the mealy bug infest many of them. . . . The trees do
not seem to do well above 800 feet elevation. The ripening season is
from the last of November until the first of February."
Canary Islands the cherimoya is not cultivated commercially, but it is
grown on a limited scale. Georges V. Perez writes: "Ever since I can
remember it has been cultivated in the gardens of Orotava as a
delicious and perhaps unequalled tropical fruit."
Mediterranean region there are several localities in which it can be
grown successfully. A. Robertson-Prosch-owsky, who has experimented
with many tropical and subtropical plants at Nice, France, finds that
the fruits, if caught by cold weather before they mature, do not ripen
perfectly. If, however, the winter is mild and warm they may mature
satisfactorily, even if very late. Robertson-Proschowsky believes that
the cherimoya is well suited for cultivation in sheltered spots along
the Cote d'Azur (French Riviera), and he recommends it as a fruit
worthy of serious attention in that region.
It is cultivated on
a limited scale in southern Spain and in Sicily. L. Trabut 1 of Algiers
writes: "Lovers of the anona will find in the markets of Algiers,
during November and December of each year, a few good fruits which are
sold at 30 centimes to 1 franc each. These fruits come from gardens
along the western coast, where there are some magnificent trees." He
further says: "It seems evident that the moment has come to extend
cherimoya culture. It is not more difficult than orange culture, and at
present promises to be more remunerative." Trabut recommends that the
tree be planted in Algeria on the coast only, since the climate of the
interior is too cold.
The cherimoya has been planted in
several parts of India but has not become a common fruit in that
country. H. F. Macmillan says that it is "now cultivated in many
up-country gardens in Ceylon." It was introduced into the latter island
as late as 1880. In parts of Queensland, Australia, it is successfully
In Hawaii it has become well established. Vaughan
MacCaughey 1 says: "It was introduced into the Hawaiian Islands in very
early times, and is now naturalized, particularly in certain parts of
the Kona and Ka-u districts on the island of Hawaii." He adds that
cherimoyas are rarely seen in the markets of Honolulu, but that trees
are found in gardens throughout the city.
1 Bull. 24, Service Botanique, Algeria.
in Florida is the cherimoya a common fruit. Trees in limited numbers
have been planted in several parts of the state, notably in the Miami
region. While they grow vigorously they do not fruit so freely, nor is
the fruit of such good quality, as in many other countries. It is
probable that the climate of south Florida is too tropical for this
As regards California, it is believed that the
first cherimoyas planted in the state were brought from Mexico by R. B.
Ord of Santa Barbara in 1871. A few years later Jacob Miller planted a
small grove on his place at Hollywood, near Los Angeles. In the
relatively short time since these first plantings were made, the
cherimoya has become scattered throughout southern California, from
Santa Barbara to San Diego. The climate and soil of the foothill
regions seem to be peculiarly suited to it. A few commercial plantings
have been made, notably at Hollywood, but since they are composed
entirely of seedlings they have not proved remunerative. Had budded
trees of desirable varieties been planted, the results would have been
different. In the largest commercial planting, that of A. Z. Taft at
Hollywood, one seedling, more productive than the remainder, produced
one year about one-fourth the entire crop of the grove. Out of eighty
trees comprised in the planting, only five produced more than a few
fruits. By top-working the unproductive trees to a productive and
otherwise desirable variety, they could have been made valuable.
For sheltered situations throughout the foothill tracts of southern California, cherimoya culture holds great promise.
1 Torreya, May, 1917.
As soon as budded or grafted trees of good varieties are available, many small orchards should be established quickly.
cherimoya is commonly eaten fresh : rarely is it used in any way except
as a dessert fruit. Alice R. Thompson, who has analyzed the fresh fruit
in Hawaii, finds that it contains : Total solids, 33.81 per cent, ash
0.66 per cent, acids 0.06 per cent, protein 1.83 per cent, total sugars
18.41 per cent, fat 0.14 per cent, and fiber 4.29. It will be noted
that the sugar-content is high, while that of acids is low. The
percentage of protein is higher than in many other fruits.
climatic requirements of the cherimoya have been indicated in the
discussion of the regions in which it is cultivated. It is essentially
a subtropical fruit, and in the tropics succeeds only at elevations
sufficiently great to temper the heat. It thrives best in regions where
the climate is relatively dry. In the southern part of Guatemala, where
the annual rainfall is about 50 inches but where there is a long dry
season, it is extensively grown and the fruit is of excellent quality;
but in the northern part of the same country, where the rainfall is
nearly 100 inches, distributed throughout the year, the tree cannot be
grown successfully. In the highlands of Mexico it is best suited where
the climate is dry, free from extremes both of heat and cold, and where
abundant water is available for irrigating. The climate of southern
California, except in sections subject to severe frosts, seems almost
ideal for it. In many places frost is the limiting factor, for the
cherimoya, while the hardiest of its genus, does not endure
temperatures lower than 26° or 27° above zero without serious
injury. Young plants will, of course, be hurt by mild frosts which
mature trees would ignore; in fact, temperatures lower than 29° or
30° are likely to injure them.
Like other annonas, the cherimoya prefers a rich loamy soil. It can be grown, however, on soils of many different types.
California it has done well on heavy clay (almost adobe), while in
Florida it makes satisfactory growth on shallow sandy soils. H. F.
Schultz considers the ideal soil to be a fairly rich, loose sandy loam,
underlaid with gravel at a depth of two to three feet. He says: "Some
of the best Campo Santo and Betania (Argentina) groves are located on
such land, which is furthermore characterized by a liberal outcropping
of scattered rocks." Carlos Werckle states that the tree does well in
Costa Rica on "stony cliffs." He reports that it is more productive
under these conditions than when grown on richer soil, and himself
considers it partial to mountain slopes on which there is much
Experience in California has shown that the
cherimoya requires cultural treatment similar to that given the citrus
fruits. Budded trees should be planted in orchard form about 20 to 24
feet apart; seedlings about 30 feet apart, since they grow to larger
size. Irrigations, followed by thorough cultivation of the soil, are
given at intervals of two weeks to one month. While the trees are
young, more frequent irrigations are necessary. In Argentina, according
to H. F. Schultz, it is the custom to irrigate the trees at intervals
of six to twelve days. In Mexico two weeks is considered the proper
In California, stable manure has been used for
young trees with excellent results, and occasionally for bearing
groves. Little attention has been devoted to the subject; hence it is
not possible to give specific directions for the use of fertilizers. A
writer in the Queensland Agricultural Journal recommends that each tree
be given annually 1 to 3 pounds of superphosphate, 2 to 6 pounds of
meat-works manure with blood, and 1 to 2 pounds of sulfate of potash.
pruning of cherimoyas has received little attention as yet in the
United States. In Argentina it is considered that trees which are kept
low and compact are both more precocious and longer lived than those
which are tall and open in habit.
In Guatemala the most productive
trees are usually those which have been cut back heavily. It is
possible that fruitful-ness can be increased by severe pruning. The
matter deserves careful investigation. The tree being semi-deciduous,
pruning should be done after the leaves have dropped and before the new
foliage makes its appearance.
many regions seed-propagation is the only method which has been used
with this plant. In the United States, in Madeira, in Algeria, and in
the Philippines, cherimoyas have been grafted and budded successfully;
one or the other of these methods should be employed to perpetuate
If kept dry the seeds will retain their
viability several years. Given warm weather or planted under glass,
they will germinate in a few weeks. Under glass they may be sown at any
time of the year; if in open ground, they should be planted only in the
warm season. Seeds should be sown in flats of light porous soil
containing an abundance of humus, and should be covered to a depth of
not more than 3/4 inch. When the young plants are three or four inches
high, they may be transferred into three-inch pots. Good drainage must
be provided, and they should not be watered too copiously. When eight
inches high they may be shifted into larger pots, or set out in the
open ground. In the latter case, they must have careful attention, and,
preferably, shade, until they have become well established.
stock-plants on which to bud or graft the cherimoya, several species of
Annona have been employed. A. reticulata, A. glabra, and A. squamosa
are all recommended by P. J. Wester. In Florida A. squamosa has proved
to be a good stock when a dwarf tree is desired; A. glabra tends to
outgrow the cion. In California, seedling cherimoyas as stock-plants
have given the best results.
Shield-budding has worked very
satisfactorily in the United States. In several other regions
horticulturists have found grafting more successful. Budding is best
done at the beginning of the growing season, when the sap is flowing
freely. Stock-plants should be 3/8 to 1/2 inch in diameter.
Well-matured budwood from which the leaves have dropped is preferable,
and it should be gray, not green, in color. The buds should be cut l
1/2 inches in length, and should be inserted exactly as in budding
avocados or mangos. Waxed tape, raffia, and soft cotton string have
proved satisfactory for tying. Three or four weeks after insertion of
bud, the wrapping should be loosened and the stock lopped at a point 5
or 6 inches above the bud. Wrapping should not be removed entirely
until the bud has made a growth of several inches.
two-year-old seedlings are to be preferred (for budding they may be
somewhat younger). The cleft-graft is the method usually employed. The
cion should be well-matured wood from which the leaves have dropped. C.
H. Gable wrote from Madeira in 1914 : "I have been surprised to find
how easily the annona is grafted. My first few efforts were not very
successful, but later I grafted them in all sizes from seedlings
smaller than a lead pencil to old trees, and more than 90% have grown
beautifully." Gable found it advisable after making the graft to paint
the cion and the top of the stock (around the cleft) with melted wax,
to prevent evaporation.
Old seedling trees can be top-worked
without difficulty. For this purpose cleft-grafting is used more
commonly than any other method.
The pollination of the
cherimoya has been investigated in Florida by P. J. Wester, and in
Madeira by C. H. Gable. It has been thought that the scanty
productiveness of many trees might be due to insufficient pollination,
and the investigations tend to confirm this belief. Gable reports that
normally in Madeira not more than 5 per cent of the flowers produced
develop into fruits. By hand-pollinating them, however, he was able to
obtain thirty-six fruits from forty-five flowers.
After carrying on
pollination experiments in Florida during several years, P. J. Wester 1
wrote: "The investigations indicate that the flowers of the cherimoya,
the sugar-apple, the custard-apple and the pond-apple are proterogynous
and entomophilous, though the pollinating agent of the last-named
species has not been detected." A proterogynous plant, it may be
remarked, is one in which the pistils are receptive before the anthers
have developed ripe pollen, cross-pollination being therefore
necessary, and some outside agency being required to effect it. In the
case of the annonas the work is done by insects; hence the plants are
The pollination of the closely allied
Asimina triloba is thus described by Delpino: 2 "The stamens project in
the center of the pendulous protogynous (proterogynous) flower as a
hemispherical mass, from the middle of which a few styles with their
stigmas project. In the first (female) stage of anthesis the three
inner petals lie so close to the stamens that insect visitors (flies)
cannot suck the nectar secreted at the bases of the former without
touching the already mature stigmas. In the second (male) stage the
stigmas have dried up and the inner petals have raised themselves, so
that the anthers, - now covered with pollen, - are touched by insects
on their way to the nectar. Cross-pollination of the younger flowers is
therefore effected by transference from the older ones.,, Wester
concluded that one cause of the unproductiveness of the cherimoya in
Florida was the scarcity of pollinating insects. Even under the same
conditions of environment, however, there are marked differences in
productiveness among seedling trees. The subject deserves further
investigation. Productive varieties especially should be studied, to
determine whether or not they differ in any way from the typical less
fecund form in manner of pollination.
1 Bull. of the Torrey Bot. Club, 37, 1910.
2 Paul Knuth, Handbook of Flower Pollination.
cherimoyas, when grown under favorable cultural conditions, begin to
bear the third or fourth year after planting. Most of them, even at
fifteen or twenty years of age, do not produce annually more than a
dozen good fruits. Occasional trees are more satisfactory in this
respect, and it is such trees which should be propagated by budding.
The writer has observed one small tree in Guatemala which bore
eighty-five fruits in a single season, and C. H. Gable found a tree in
Madeira which bore three hundred.
In California the main
season for cherimoyas is spring, usually March and April; but sometimes
a few fruits mature in late autumn. In Argentina the season is February
to July. Felix Foex states that there are ripe cherimoyas in Mexico
throughout the year, owing to the presence of trees at different
elevations. From personal observation the writer ventures to doubt
whether this all-year season is a fact; in any event, they are not
abundant during the entire year. In Madeira the fruit begins to ripen
about the end of November and continues in season until early in
When fully mature or "tree-ripe," the fruits are
picked and laid away to soften. If, however, they are to be shipped to
distant markets they are packed as soon as removed from the tree, and
dispatched at once so that they will reach their destination before
they have become soft. When fully mature and ready to pick, they
usually have a yellowish tinge. In Mexico they are packed for shipment
in baskets, using hay or straw as a cushion. According to H. F.
Schultz, the same method is used in Argentina, where twelve to fifteen
dozen fruits are packed in a basket. Good ventilation should be
insured, and the fruits should not be wrapped in paper. Cherimoyas
exported from Madeira to London net the growers $1.00 to $1.20 a dozen.
In Argentina the average price to growers is $2.20 a dozen.
Pests and Diseases
the cherimoya has up to the present suffered little from the attacks of
insect and other pests in California and Florida, it is far from being
exempt from them in regions where it has been grown extensively for a
long period. In Hawaii, Pseudococcus filamentosus Cockerell is a
serious enemy. Several other coccids have also been reported on the
cherimoya, Aulacaspis miranda Cockerell and Ceropute yuccoe Coquillet
are two which are mentioned from Mexico. Certain of the fruit-flies
(Trypetidse) are known to attack the fruits of the cherimoya.
Throughout the warmer parts of America there are small chalcid flies,
related to the wheat-joint worm and the grape-seed chalcid, which
infest the seeds of annonaceous fruits. Bephrata cubensis Ashm. has
been reported as attacking the cherimoya in Cuba. These insects are
serious pests. In Argentina the attacks of borers are said to reduce
the life of the average tree by half, making it thirty in place of
While there are
important differences among seedling cherimoyas, affecting not only the
productiveness and foliage of the tree but also the size, form,
character of surface, color, quality, and number of seeds of the fruit,
few named varieties have as yet been propagated. In the Pomona College
Journal of Economic Botany (May, 1912) the author has described two,
viz., Mammillaris and Golden Russet, which have been propagated in
California on a limited scale. Neither of these, however, merits
extensive cultivation; hence the descriptions will not be included in
this work. It seems desirable, however, to repeat the botanical
classification of seedling cherimoyas published by W. E. Safford in the
Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. This comprises the following five
Finger-printed (botanically known as forma
impressa).- Called in Costa Rica anona de dedos pintados. The fruit is
conoid or subglobose in shape, and has a smooth surface covered with
U-shaped areoles resembling finger-prints in wax. Many seedlings of
this type are of good quality, and contain few seeds.
(forma loevis).- Called chirimoya lisa in South America and anon in
Mexico City. This form is often mistaken for Annona glabra and A.
reticulata because of the general appearance of the fruit and on
account of the name anon, which is also applied to A. reticulata. One
of the finest types of cherimoya.
Fig. 24. Seedling cherimoyas, showing some of the common types. (X 1/5)
Tuberculate (forma tuberculata).
- One of the commonest forms. The fruit is heart-shaped and has
wart-like tubercles near the apex of each areole. The Golden Russet
variety belongs to this group.
Mammillate (forma mamillata).
- Called in South America chirimoya de tetillas. Said to be common in
the Nilgiri hills in southern India, and to be one of the best forms
grown in Madeira.
Umbonate (forma umbonata).
- Called chirimoya de puas and anona picuda in Latin America. The skin
is thick, the pulp more acid than in other forms, and the seeds more
numerous. The fruit is oblong-conical, with the base somewhat
umbilicate and the surface studded with protuberances, each of which
corresponds to a component carpel.
Hybrids between the cherimoya and the sugar-apple (Annona squamosa)
have been produced in Florida by P. J. Wester and Edward Simmonds. The
aim has been to develop a fruit having the delicious flavor of the
cherimoya, yet adapted to strictly tropical conditions. Some of the
hybrids have proved to be very good fruits, and further work along this
line is greatly to be desired. Wester calls this new fruit atemoya.
Hybrids between it and the sugar-apple, the bullock's-heart, and the
pond-apple (all of which see below) have been obtained by him in the
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