Coconut Injuries and Other Symptoms
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Lightning injury to coconut palm
 Fig. 1
Lightning injury to coconut palm at Hilo municipal golf course

Cocos nucifera with "hookleaf", a mild syptom of B deficiency
Fig. 8 
Cocos nucifera with "Hookleaf", a mild syptom of boron deficiency

Mild Magnesium Deficiency on Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera)
 Fig. 9 
 Mild magnesium deficiency on coconut (Cocos nucifera)

Nitrogen Deficiency on Coconut (Cocos nucifera)
 Fig. 10
Nitrogen Deficiency on Coconut (Cocos nucifera)

Potassium Deficiency on Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera), Marginal Necrosis
Fig. 11
 Potassium deficiency on coconut palm (Cocos nucifera), marginal necrosis

Potassium deficiency symptoms on older leaf of Cocos nucifera showing translucent yellow-orange spotting
Fig. 12  
Potassium deficiency symptoms on older leaf of Cocos nucifera showing translucent yellow-orange spotting

Manganese deficiency on Cocos nucifera induced by composted sewage sludge in the backfill Fig. 13
 Manganese deficiency on Cocos nucifera induced by composted sewage sludge in the backfill

Coconut: Climbing spikes injury to stem
Fig. 14
Coconut: climbing spikes injury to stem


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Ligntning Injury

Lightning injury to coconut palms: pith explosion through stem. Hilo municipal golf course
Lightning injury to coconut palms: pith explosion through stem. Hilo municipal golf course. Nut drop: a symptom of lightning injury to coconut
Fig. 2   Fig. 3  Fig. 4  
Lightning injury to coconut palm Lightning injury to coconut palm Lightning injury to coconut palms: burned and collapsed foliage. Hilo municipal golf course.
Fig. 5   Fig. 6   Fig. 7

Fig. 2,3. Lightning injury to coconut palms: pith explosion through stem, Hilo municipal golf course
Fig. 4. Nut drop: a symptom of lightning injury to coconut
Fig. 5,6. Lightning injury to coconut palm. Hilo Municipal Golf Course, Hilo, Hawaii. Photographs were taken 7 days after lightning storm.
Fig. 7. Lightning injury to coconut palms: burned and collapsed foliage. Hilo municipal golf course.

Further Reading
Lightning Injury to Plants from the University of Hawaii at Manoa pdf 5 pages



Nutrient Deficiencies
 
Boron (Fig.5)
Boron Deficiency in Palms from the University of Florida pdf 5 pages
Boron Deficiency in Palms in Hawaii from the University of Hawai'i at Manoa pdf 6 pages

Magnesium (Fig.6)
Magnesium Deficiency in Palms from the University of Florida pdf

Nitrogen (Fig.7)
Nitrogen Deficiency in Palms from the University of Florida pdf

Potassium (Fig.8,9)
Potassium Deficiency in Palms from the University of Florida pdf 5 pages 
Potassium Deficiency of Palms in Hawai'i from the University of Hawai'i at Manoa pdf 7 pages

Manganese (Fig.10)
Manganese Deficiency in Palms from the University of Florida pdf

Iron
Iron Deficiency in Palms from the University of Florida pdf



Further Reading

Nutrient Deficiencies of Landscape and Field-Grown Palms in Florida from the University of Florida pdf 10 pages
Normal Abnormalities in Palms from the University of Florida pdf 6 pages
Physiological Disorders Palms from the University of Florida pdf 13 pages
Photographs

Fig. 1 Nelson, Scot C. Lightning injury to coconut palm at Hilo municipal golf course. 2005. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 10 Mar. 2017.
Fig. 2,3 Nelson, Scot C. Lightning injury to coconut palms: pith explosion through stem. Hilo municipal golf course.  2005. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 10 Mar. 2017.
Fig. 4 Nelson, Scot C. Nut drop: a symptom of lightning injury to coconut. 2006. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 10 Mar. 2017.
Fig. 5,6 Nelson, Scot C. Lightning injury to coconut palm. Hilo Municipal Golf Course, Hilo, Hawaii. Photograph was taken 7 days after lightning storm. 2006. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 10 Mar. 2017.
Fig. 7 Nelson, Scot C. Lightning injury to coconut palms: burned and collapsed foliage. Hilo municipal golf course. 2005. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 10 Mar. 2017.
Fig. 5 Broschat, Timothy K. Cocos nucifera with "Hookleaf", a mild syptom of boron deficiency. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 10 Mar. 2017
Fig. 6 Nelson, Scot C. Mild magnesium deficiency on coconut (Cocos nucifera). 2003. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 10 Mar. 2017.
Fig. 7 Nelson, Scot C. Nitrogen deficiency of young coconut palm. 2003. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 10 Mar. 2017.
Fig. 8 Nelson, Scot C. Potassium deficiency on coconut palm (Cocos nucifera), marginal necrosis. 2003. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 10 Mar. 2017.
Fig. 9 Potassium deficiency symptoms on older leaf of Cocos nucifera showing translucent yellow-orange spotting. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 10 Mar. 2017.
Fig. 10 Manganese deficiency on Cocos nucifera induced by composted sewage sludge in the backfill. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 13 May 2014.
Fig. 11 Nelson, Scot C. Coconut: Climbing spikes injury to stem. 2015. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 10 Mar. 2017.

Published 10 Mar. 2017 LR
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