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Thickset Scolytid Borer
Dorsal view of male
Platypus flavicornis Fabricius
Adult redbanded thrips,
Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard)
Florida red scale
Mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius)
Mango seed weevil Sternochetus mangiferae from South India
pests on mango in Florida are mites (avocado red mite, mango spider
mite, mango bud mite), scales (dictyospermum scale, Florida red scale,
Florida wax scale, pyriform scale, oleander scale, mango scale, plumose
scale), thrips (redbanded, flower), and ambrosia beetles. Minor and
occasional pests include aphids, mealybugs, and whiteflies/blackflies. 2
Thickset Scolytid Borer, Xylosandrus solidus (Fig. 1)
The scolytid beetles, Xylosandrus spp., attack the main stem and branches. Fungus mycellium growth can extend terminally and basally from the beetle gallery in the mango tree and can kill the affected branches. The insects prefer trees that have been weakened by pathogens, wind, etc., but after a population has been established in one orchard the infestation spreads to healthy trees. 1
Ambrosia Beetle (Fig. 2)
Platypus spp. Insecta: Coleoptera: Platypodidae
The family Platypodidae includes approximately 1,000 species, most of which are found in the tropics (Schedl 1972). Seven species of platypodids, all in the genus Platypus, are found in the United States, four of which occur in Florida. All species found in Florida are borers of trunks and large branches of recently killed trees and and may cause economic damage to unmilled logs or standing dead timber. 4
Fig. 3. Sawdust tube produced by an ambrosia beetle on a dead redbay. Multiple species of ambrosia beetles attack redbays killed by Xyleborus glabratus and its associated fungus.
Fig. 4. Boring dust (stage 3) at base of tree resulting from feeding of the ambrosia beetle Platyus flavicornis Fabricius.
Fig. 5. Redbay (Persea borbonia) trunk with ambrosia beetle sawdust (frass) tubes at points of entrance for adult beetles constructing galleries
Redbay Ambrosia Beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff from the University of Florida pdf 6 pages
Oligonychus yothersi, Oligonychus mangiferus, Aceria mangiferae
Spider mites of the genus Oligonychus commonly infest mangos in Florida. Feeding is first confined to the upper leaf surface, along the midrib, and then along secondary veins. The areas along the veins become reddish-brown. Damage by the spider mites is regularly observed from October through February, causing a reduction in photosynthesis of up to 30 percent. Infested leaves often abscise prematurely. Control measures are often started when mite pressures reach six or more mites per leaf. For spider mites in general, life cycles may last several weeks. The female lays 40 to 50 eggs over a lifetime, and they are capable of overwintering within the grove. 2
Mango bud mite (A. mangiferae) is found on buds and is associated with two diseases depending on the presence of Fusarium sp. fungi. When the fungus is absent and the buds are attacked, a witch's broom develops at the terminal branch. When the fungus is present, galls form on flowers and foliage. 2
The avocado red mite Paratetranychus yothersii is a serious problem. Feeding is first confined to the upper surface of mango leaves; it is found first along the midrib, then along secondary leaf veins. The areas along the veins become reddish-brown and during heavy infestations can be covered with mite's cast skins. Damage to the leaf area is regularly observed from October through February, causing up to 30% reduction of photosynthetic activity of the leaves. This mite is an occasional pest in some orchards and is seldom observed in others. Periodic inspections are recommended during December, January and February. Control measures may be started when the population reaches 6 or more mites per leaf.
Control. Few miticides are registered for use on mango. Apply sulfur dust, or spray with sulfur using 10 pounds of wettable sulfur per 100 gallons of water. Insecticidal soap and Pyrellin are also registered. 1
Mango Bud Mite, Aceria mangiferae Bionomics and Control under Florida Conditions from the TREC University of Florida pdf 7 pages
Thrips (Fig. 6)
Selenothrips rubrocinctus, Frankliniella bispinosa, Frankliniella kelliae; Insects: Thysanoptera: Thripidae
The redbanded thrips Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard) is ubiquitous in its distribution throughout Florida, but it is generally found in damaging numbers from Orlando to Key West. Female redbanded thrips are slightly greater than 1 mm in length and have a dark brown to black body. The black color is underlain by red pigment, chiefly in the first three abdominal segments. The larvae are light yellow to orange, with the first three and last segments of the abdomen bright red. The life cycle of this thrips is about three weeks in Florida, and several generations are possible each year. In addition to attacking avocado and mango, this thrips also attacks sweetgum trees. Redbanded thrips prefer young foliage, which may lead to leaf drop, at times totally denuding trees. The frass and associated sooty mold from thrips feeding gives rise to fruit which is out-of-grade. 2
In Florida, the thrips complex consisting of the two Frankliniella species is the most frequently observed blossom pest. It causes damage by ovipositing in the panicle and feeding on the floral nectaries and anthers, which may result in premature loss of pollen. These thrips are light-yellow and appear commonly during the dry season from January to April. 2
The redbanded thrips, Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard), was first described from Guadeloupe West Indies, where is was causing considerable damage to cacao. As a result, it was referred to as the Cacao or cocoa thrips. The earliest report relating to this thrips was a report by W.E. Broadway in 1898, when he called attention to the "blight" of cacao. 3
Fig. 7. Adult and Larvae
Fig. 8. Pupa(e)
Fig. 9 Damage by the Redbanded Thrips
Redbanded Thrips, Selenothrips rubrocinctus from the University of Florida pdf
Scales (Fig. 10)
Several kinds including lesser snow, coconut, pyriform, mango shield, oleander, acuminate, false oleander scale, Florida wax, Florida red and dictyospermum may infest mango. These scales are found on the upper or lower surfaces of leaves and also on fruits. 1
Soft and armored scales are plant-feeding insects which are often controlled by natural and released parasites, predators, and pathogens. In cases when the natural balance of predation has been disrupted, scale populations may increase to levels requiring treatment. Since scale insects are relatively immobile and at least one month is required for the egg to reach the adult stage, an infestation builds up slowly (in comparison to mites or aphids) and may be hard to spot. It is also important to verify that the scale insects attached to the plant are alive, as mummies accumulate on the plant over time. Most effective control is obtained when the
scales are in nymphal stages because egg and adult stages are recalcitrat to insecticide applications. 2
Infestations of the mango scale, Radionaspis indica and plumose scale (Fig.15), Morganella longispina (Morgan) commonly occur on the trunk, branches and buds. Severe infestations can include crackling of the bark, exudation of sap and decline of upper branches. 1
Fig. 11. Florida red scale, Chrysomphalus aonidum, Adult(s)
Fig. 12. Florida wax scale Ceroplastes floridensis life cycle
Fig. 13. Pyriform scale Protopulvinaria pyriformis
Fig. 14. Oleander scale Aspidiotus nerii
Fig. 15. Plumose scale Morganella longispina fruiting bodies
Mango Seed Weevil (Fig. 16,17)
Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius)
The mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius), is not found Florida, but its presence in the major mango producing areas of the world indicates that it is a potential pest here. It is spread mainly by infested fruits because the weevil develops within the mango seed and can be transported unnoticed from one locality to another (Griesbach 2003). 5
Mango Seed Weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius) from the University of Florida pdf
Insect Management in Mango pdf
Florida Crop Management Profile: Mango pdf 7 pages
Insects and Mites of Mangos and Avocados (1955) pdf 7 pages
1 Pena, Jorge. "Insect Management in Mango". edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is ENY-413, one of a series of the Department of Entomology and Nematology, UF/IFAS Extension. Date first printed Oct. 1993. Revised July 2006. Reviewed Nov. 2013. Web. 23 June 2014.
2 Mossler, Mark A. and Crane, Jonathan. "Florida Crop/Pest Management Profile: Mango". edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is CIR 1401, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date, Mar. 2002. Reviewed July 2013. Web.23 june 2014.
3 Denmark, H.A. and Wolfenbarge, D.O. "Redbanded thrips Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard). edis.ifas.ufl.edu. One of a series of Featured Creatures from the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. June 1999. Reviewed Sept. 2010. Web. 23 June 2014.
4 Atkinson, T.H. "Ambrosia Beetle Platypus spp. (Insecta: Coleoptera: Platypodidae)". edis.ifas.ufl.edu. One of a series of Featured Creatures from the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Nov. 2000. Reviewed March 2011. Web. 23 June 2014.
5 Woodruff, Robert E. and Fasulo, Thomas R. "Mango Seed Weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius). edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is EENY-371 (originally published as DPI Entomology Circular 93), one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/
IFAS Extension. Original publication date May 2006. Revised Ap. 2015. Web. 24 Mar. 2015.
Fig. 1 Thickset scolytid borer, Xylosandrus solidus (Eichhoff, 1868). 2000. bugwood.org. Web. 23 June 2014.
Fig. 2 Almquist, David T. Dorsal view of male Platypus flavicornis Fabricius. N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
Fig. 3 Mayfield, Albert. Small strings of compacted sawdust protrude from small bore holes along the trunk of a tree. N.d. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. edis.ifas.ufl.edu.Web. 19 Nov. 2013.
Fig. 4 Billings, Ronald F.. Boring dust (stage 3) at base of tree resulting from feeding of the ambrosia beetle Platyus flavicornis Fabricius". 2005. Texas Forest Service. bugwood.org. Web. 18 Nov. 2013.
Fig. 5 Billings, Ronald, F. Redbay (Persea borbonia) trunk with ambrosia beetle sawdust (frass) tubes at points of entrance for adult beetles constructing galleries. 2010. Texas Forest Service, College Station, TX. bugwood.org. Web. 6 Feb. 2014.
Fig. 6,7,8 Buss, Lyle. Adult redbanded thrips, Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard). 2010. University of Florida. bugwood.org. Web. 19 Nov. 2013.
Fig. 9 Nelson, Scot C. Thrips, Damage to Mango Leaves. N. d. hawaiiplantdisease.net. Web. 24 June 2014.
Fig. 10 Florida red scale, Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linnaeus). 2006. bugwood.org. United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs Archive, USDA Agricultural Research Service. Web. 23 June 2014.
Fig. 11 Graney, Lorraine. Florida red scale (Chrysomphalus aonidum). bugwood.org. Under (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
Fig. 12 Hesselein, Chazz. Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock. 2011. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Alabama Cooperative ExtensionSystem. Web. 23 June 2014.
Fig. 13 Pyriform scale, Protopulvinaria pyriformis. 2006. bugwood.org. United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs Archive, Fig. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Web. 23 June 2014.
Fig. 14 Olsen, Charles. Oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii Bouché. 2011. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). USDA APHIS PPQ. Web. 23 June 2014.
Fig. 15 O'Brien, Joseph. Plumose scale: fruiting bodies. 2007. bugwood.org. USDA Forest Service. Web. 23 June 2014.
Fig. 16. Eaglin, Anson. Adult mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius). 2004. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). USDA APHIS PPQ. Web. 24 Mar. 2016.
Fig. 17. PJeganathan. Mango seed weevil Sternochetus mangiferae from South India. 2013. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0). Web. 24 Mar. 2016.
Published 23 June 2014 LR. Updated 15 Aug. 2014, 24 Mar. 2016 LR