Excerpts from Julia Morton's Book
Fruits of Warm Climate
The bi-sexual plant is self-pollinating. The female plant needs either a male plant or bi-sexual plant nearby for pollination. The female
flower is much larger than the bi-sexual flower. The size of the ovary in the female flower is much bigger than the ovary, which is located
at the bottom of the bi-sexual flower.
The 5-petalled flowers are fleshy, waxy and slightly fragrant. Some plants bear only short-stalked pistillate (female) flowers, waxy and ivory-white; or hermaprodite (perfect) flowers (having female and male organs), ivory-white with bright-yellow anthers and borne on short stalks; while others may bear only staminate (male) flowers, clustered on panicles to 5 or 6 ft (1.5-1.8 m) long. There may even be monoecious plants having both male and female flowers. Some plants at certain seasons produce short-stalked male flowers, at other times perfect flowers. This change of sex may occur temporarily during high temperatures in midsummer. Some "all-male" plants occasionally bear, at the tip of the spray, small flowers with perfect pistils and these produce abnormally slender fruits. Male or hermaphrodite plants may change completely to female plants after being beheaded.
Fruits from bisexual plants are usually cylindrical or pyriform with small seed cavity and thick wall of firm flesh which stands handling
and shipping well. In contrast, fruits from female flowers are nearly round or oval and thin-walled. In some areas, bisexual types are in greatest demand. In South Africa, round or oval papayas are preferred.
Morton, J. "Papaya." hort.purdue.edu. Fruits of warm climates. p. 336-346. 1987. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Fig. 1,2,4 Starr, Forest and Kim. Carica papaya. Female flower on right hemaphrodite flower on left and Carica papaya Female Flower. 2012. Hawea Pl Olinda, Maui. starrenvironmental.com. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Fig. 3 Wright, Jason. Carica papaya. N.d. Top Tropicals Tropical Plant Catalog. toptropicals.com. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Fig. 5,7 Jackson, Karen. "Hawai'i Papaya Series.” 2013. growables.org. JPG File.Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Fig. 8 Starr, Forest and Kim. Carica papaya Male Flowers. 2012. Kahanu Gardens Hana, Maui. starrenvironmental.com. Web. 2 Apr. 2014.
Fig. 10 Starr, Forest and Kim. Carica papaya Leaf. 2011. Sacred Garden of Maliko, Maui. starrenvironmental.com. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Fig. 11,12 Kwan. Papaya carica, Papaya. 2007. natureloveyou.sg. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
Fig. 13,14 Starr, Forest and Kim. Carica papaya Fruit. 2009, 2012. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui. starrenvironmental.com. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Fig. 9,15,16 Carica papaya. N.d. Top Tropicals Tropical Plant Catalog. toptropicals.com. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Published 20 Mar. 2014 LR. Last update 21 Sept. 2014 LR