Papaya Pests
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Adult female papaya fruit fly, Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker. Fig. 1 
Adult female papaya fruit fly, Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker.
 Twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch.Fig. 5 
Twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch.
 Several female papaya mealybugs (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) and two web masses on a stem of a red potato sprout.Fig. 
Several female papaya mealybugs (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) and two web masses on a stem of a red potato sprout.

Life stages of reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira. Ranging from left to right is egg, juvenile, young female with swollen body, and mature female in kidney shape.Fig. 12
Life stages of reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira. Ranging from left to right is egg, juvenile, young female with swollen body, and mature female in kidney shape.

Root Knot Galls Caused by Meloidogyne nematodes Fig. 13
Root knot galls caused by Meloidogyne nematodes

Papaya (Carica papaya): Giant African snail (Achatina fulica)
Fig. 15
Papaya (Carica papaya): Giant African snail (Achatina fulica)


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Papaya Fruit Fly
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker (Fig.1)

The papaya fruit fly, Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker, is the principal insect pest of papaya (Carica papaya L.) throughout the tropical and subtropical areas of the New World. The insect was introduced into Florida in 1905, most likely from the West Indies on papaya shipments. It first became established in the Florida Keys and Miami, then spread throughout the state wherever papayas are grown. Papaya fruit fly larvae and adults have been found in Florida in every month of the year. 1

Larvae of the papaya fruit fly, Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker, in papaya. Fruit Flies on Fruit 2004 distribution of the papaya fruit fly, Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker, in Florida.
Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Fig. 2. Larvae of the papaya fruit fly, Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker, in papaya
Fig. 3. Fruit flies on fruit Fig. 4. 2004 Distribution of the papaya fruit fly, Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker, in Florida

Further Reading
Florida Crop/Pest Management: Papaya from the University of Florida pdf 7 pages
Papaya Fruit Fly Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker from the University of Florida pdf 6 pages
Papaya Fruit Fly from the University of Florida
How to Protect your Papaya Fruit from the Papaya Fruit Fly
 


Two-Spotted Spider Mite
Tetranychus urticae (Fig.5)

The two-spotted spider mite is oval in shape, about 0.5 mm long, and may be brown or orange-red, but a green, greenish-yellow or an almost translucent color is the most common. All mites have needle-like piercing-sucking mouthparts. Spider mites feed by penetrating the plant tissue with their mouthparts and are typically found on the underside of the leaf. Spider mites spin fine strands of webbing on the host plant- hence their name. When two-spotted spider mites remove the sap, the mesophyll tissue collapses and a small chlorotic spot forms at each feeding site. Continued feeding causes a stippled-bleached effect on the upper surfaces of leaves and later, the leaves turn yellow, gray or bronze. Complete defoliation may occur if the mites are not controlled. 3

Webbing produced by twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch. Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink Different Cycles
Fig. 6 Fig. 7 

Fig. 6. Webbing produced by twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch.
Fig. 7. Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink Different Cycles

Further Reading
Two-Spotted Spider Mite from the University of Florida pdf 5 pages



Papaya Whitefly
Trialeuroides variabilis

Female whiteflies lay yellow oval eggs, which appear dusted, singly on the undersides of leaves. The nymphs go through three instars. The first instar or crawler has well-developed legs and is the only mobile immature life stage. After finding a suitable feeding site on the lower surface of a leaf, the crawlers insert their mouthparts, begin feeding, and usually do not move again while in the nymphal stage. The subsequent instars are flattened, oval, and scale-like. Whiteflies in the pupal stage are more convex, with large, conspicuous red eyes. 3



Mealybugs
Paracoccus marginatus
(Fig.8)  

The papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, is a small hemipteran that attacks several genera of host plants, including economically important tropical fruits and ornamentals. The papaya mealybug was discovered in Manatee and Palm Beach counties in Florida in 1998 and subsequently spread rapidly to several other Florida counties. 4

Distribution of the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, as of May 2003. Papaya leaf infestation of the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink. Papaya fruit infestation and damage caused by the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink.
Fig. 9   Fig. 10   Fig. 11 

Fig.9. Distribution of the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, as of May 2003.
Fig. 10. Papaya leaf infestation of the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink.
Fig. 11. Papaya fruit infestation and damage caused by the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink.

Further Reading
Papaya Mealybug Paracoccus marginatus from the University of Florida pdf 6 pages



Root Knot
Caused by Meloidogyne nematodes (Fig.14)

Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic roundworms, found in soils, which primarily attack plant roots. General signs of nematode damage include stunting, premature wilting, leaf yellowing, root malformation, and related signs characteristic of nutrient deficiencies. Stunting and poor stand development tend to occur in patches throughout the field as a result of the irregular distribution of nematodes within the soil. Species of nematodes reported to be associated with papaya plants include Rotylenchulus reniformis, Meloidogyne spp., Helicotylenchus dihysteria, Quinisulcius acutus, and Criconemella spp. The first two genera are by far the most damaging to papaya. 3

R. rotylenchulus
(reniform nematode) is small in size and does not traverse distances of more than a few inches during its life. The nematodes are primarily spread through cultivation and surface runoff or through irrigation water. After molting several times, mature females penetrate the root cortex and become sedentary. Phloem feeding by the nematode creates giant cells, which are centers of high metabolic activity that compete with other parts of the plant for nutrients. The portion of the body that remains outside the root enlarges and becomes kidney-shaped. After mating, the female secretes a gelatinous substance around her body into which approximately 100 eggs are laid. When roots are washed clean, these egg masses appear like grains of sand. A complete life cycle is possible in about 25 days. 3

Papaya is susceptible to galling by the four common species of root-knot nematode. Many of the aspects of root-knot attack are similar to the reniform nematode. However, unlike reniform nematodes, the female root-knot nematode and associated egg-mass are embedded in the root tissue. Each egg mass may contain 350 eggs and 14–17 generations are possible in a year under subtropical conditions. In addition to the metabolic drain from feeding as described above, root systems may be reduced by terminal root infections, which cause a slight swelling and cessation of further elongation. Nutrient and water uptake are also impaired. 3

Papaya root knot
Fig. 14  

Further Reading
Reniform Nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveira from the University of Florida pdf 



Giant African land snail
Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica

Giant African land snail, Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica, is considered by some to be one of the most damaging snails in the world. It has been observed to feed on at least 500 different types of plants, many of them crops. It is thought to have originated in East Africa, but has since spread through many countries in Southeast Asia and islands in the Pacific Ocean, including the Hawaiian Islands. More recently, this mollusc gained access to South America (Brazil) and the Caribbean islands of Martinique, Guadeloupe, Saint Lucia, Barbados and Saint Martin/ Saint Maarten. In early September 2011, it was found in Miami-Dade County of southern Florida. This is not the first occurrence of giant African snail in Florida. In 1966, a Miami, FL, child smuggled three giant African snails into south Florida when he returned from a trip to Hawaii. His grandmother eventually released the snails into her garden. Seven years later, more than 18,000 snails had been found along with scores of eggs. It was eventually eradicated, but it took 10 years at a cost of $1 million to eliminate this invader. Florida is now once again faced with an invasion by this snail. 5
The molllusc increases fruit and stem blight caused by Phytophthora palmivora as the snail spreads the pathogen contact with its body. 6

African snails (Achatina fulica) and their feeding injury to papaya fruits. The whitish mycelium is Phytophthora palmivora
Fig. 16

Fig. 16. African snails (Achatina fulica) and their feeding injury to papaya fruits. The whitish mycelium is Phytophthora palmivora

Further Reading
(Giant) African snail (Achatina fulica)


Bibliography

1 Lane Selman, H., Heppner, J.B. and Fasulo, Thomas R. "Papaya Fruit Fly." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is EENY-021 (IN148), one of a series of Featured Creatures from the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Published Mar. 2001. Revised Apr. 2015. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
2
Fasulo, Thomas R. and Denmark, H. A. "Twospotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arachnida: Acari: Tetranychidae)." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is EENY-150 (IN307) (originally published as DPI Entomology Circular 89), one of a series of Featured Creatures from the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Published Aug. 2000. Reviewed Oct. 2012. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
3
Mossler, Mark A. and Crane, Jonathan. "Florida Crop/Pest Management Profile: Papaya." edis.ifas.ufl.edu.This document is CIR 1402, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication Sept. 2002. Original authors included O. Norman Nesheim, professor, Food Science and Human Nutrition Department. Revised Nov. 2009. Reviewed July 2013. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.  
4 Walker, Alison, Marjorie Hoy and Dave Meyerdirk. "Papaya Mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Featured Creatures from the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Published Aug. 2003. Revised Sept. 2006. Reviewed July 2014. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
5 Capinera, John L. "Giant African Land Snail." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is ENY-512 (IN904), one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Publication date Oct. 2011. Reviewed Aug. 2014. Web. 12 Feb. 2017.
6 Nelson, Scot. "Injuries Caused by the Giant African Snail to Papaya." ctahr.hawaii.edu. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resouces, University of Hawai'i at Manoa. June 2012. Web. 12 Feb. 2017.

Photographs

Fig. 1 Caldwell, Doug. Papaya Fruit Fly. University of Florida. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 8 Apr. 2014.
Fig. 2 Bauer, Scott. Papaya Fruit Fly. USDA. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 8 Apr. 2014. 
Fig. 3 Nelson, Scot C. Fruit Fly. N.d. hawaiiplantdisease.net. Under (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Web. 31 March 2014.
Fig. 4 Steck, G. J. and Sutton, B. D. 2004 Distribution of the papaya fruit fly, Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker, in Florida. 2004. Division of Plant Industry. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
Fig. 5 Castner, J. Twospotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arachnida: Acari: Tetranychidae). University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 8 Apr. 2014.
Fig.
Webbing produced by twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch. N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
Fig. 7 Meyerdirk, Dale. Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink Different Cycles. 2006. bugwood.org. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
Fig. 8 Peggy Greb, Peggy. Several female papaya mealybugs (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) and two web masses on a stem of a red potato sprout. 2006. USDA Agricultural Research Service. bugwood.org. Web. 10 Apr. 2010.
Fig.9,10 Meyerdirk, Dale. Distribution of the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, as of May 2003 and Papaya leaf infestation of the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink. N.d. National Biological Control Institute. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
Fig.11 Meyerdirk, Dale. Papaya fruit infestation and damage caused by the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink. N.d. National Biological Control Institute. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
Fig. 12 Wang, Koon-Hui. Life stages of reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira. N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 11 Apr. 2014.
Fig. 13,14 Nishijima, Wayne. Root-knot (Meloidogyne sp., nematode). 2006. hawaiiplantdisease.net. Web. 11 Apr. 2014.
Fig. 15,16 Nelson, Scot C. Papaya (Carica papaya): Giant African snail (Achatina fulica). 2017. Pest and Disease Image Gallery. University of Hawaii. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 12 Feb. 2017. 

Published Feb. 2014 LR. Last update 12 Feb. 2017 LR
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