from Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0
by Orwa C, A Mutua, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, S Anthony
Chrysophyllum cainito L.
Local Names: Burmese
(hnin-thagya); Cantonese (chicle durian); Creole (bon kaymit, kaymit
fèy dò, kaymit fran, kaymit jaden, gran kaymit); English
(golden leaf, West Indian star apple, caimito, star-apple, cainito);
Filipino (kaimito); French (caïmitier à feuilles
d’or, caïmitier, caïmite franche, caïmite des
jardins, caimite, bon caïmite, pomme surette, grand caïmite);
Indonesian (sawo kadu, sawo ijo, sawo hejo); Italian (cainito);
Javanese (ijo, sawo ijo, sawo); Lao (Sino-Tibetan) (nam² nom);
Malay (sawu duren, hninthagya); Sinhala (chicle durian); Spanish
(caimo, caimito, caimo morado, cainito, maduraverde); Thai (sata
apoen); Vietnamese (c[aa]y v[us] s[uwx]a)
is an evergreen tree that can grow up to a height of 15 m and trunk
diameter of 60 cm. Bole usually straight, cylindrical, but often fluted
or spurred at the base; buttresses small or absent; bark surface rough,
irregularly fissured and brown; inner bark fibrous, orangewhite mottled
to yellow-white, exuding white latex. Young twigs reddishbrown and
Leaves alternate, distichous or spirally arranged,
simple, oval or oblong, 7.6-12.7 cm long, 3.8-5.8 cm wide, deep green,
hairless and glossy above, golden-brown with a sheen like that of satin
beneath; exstipulate; apex mostly abruptly short pointed, short pointed
at base, with untoothed edges and slightly thickened; tertiary veins
often parallel to the secondaries and descending from the margin.
Petiole 1.3-1.6 cm long, reddish-brown, hairy.
axillary, ramiflorous or cauliflorous. Flowers unisexual or bisexual,
fasciculate or, rarely, solitary; small and inconspicuous,
purplishwhite, axillary. Calyx a single whorl of 4-6; usually 5
imbricate or quincuncial sepals, sometimes accrescent in fruit,
frequently ciliate. Corolla 5-lobed, globose, campanulate or
cylindrical; tube shorter than, equalling or exceeding the lobes, lobes
(min. 4) 5 (max. 8), simple. Stalk slender, hairy, reddish-brown, 64-95
mm long. Stamens 4-8, usually fixed in the corolla tube; ovary
superior, (min. 4) 5 (max. 12)-locular with 1 ovule per cell (axile
placentation); style included; anthers extrorse in bud, hairy or
glabrous. Staminodes rarely present, as small lanceolate or subulate
structures in the corolla lobe sinuses, alternating with the stamens;
Fruit is commonly round, sometimes oblate, and 5-10
cm in diameter. Rind thick, leathery, smooth surfaced, somewhat glossy,
dull purple in some varieties, light green in others; has a gummy
latex; flesh white and jellylike. On cutting the fruit transversely, it
is found differentiated into 2 kinds of flesh; directly under the
tenacious skin is a layer of soft, somewhat granular flesh, concolorous
with the skin, and not very juicy; enclosed by this are 8 translucent,
whitish segments in which the seeds are embedded. Normally there is 1
seed in each segment, but frequently several are aborted, leaving 3-5
in the fruit. Seeds ovate to elliptic in outline, laterally compressed,
2 cm long, hard, brown and glossy with an adaxial scar.
generic name is based on Greek words for ‘gold’ and
‘leaf’ and refers to the leaves of some species that are
often covered with golden hairs underneath. When the fruit is halved
transversely, these cut segments present a star-like appearance, giving
the tree the common name of ‘star apple’. Two races are
common, one green fruited and the other purple fruited; they are not
known to differ in flavour or other characteristics except colour.
commences to bear fruit in its 3rd to 5th year and usually reaches its
full production in its 6th to 7th year. Flowering occurs in the summer,
and the fruits mature from late fall to summer. The fruit ripening
season in the West Indies is April and May; it is reported that trees
do not fruit in the Virgin Islands. Bats disperse the fruit.
is tropical in its requirements and prefers a humid atmosphere with
relatively high temperatures throughout the year. Throughout Southeast
Asia it thrives in the lowlands and in areas with a distinct dry season.
Altitude: Up to 400 m
Soil type: C. cainito
grows successfully on almost all types of soil; fertile, well-drained
and slightly acidic soils are preferred. Grows well both on shallow
sandy soils and on deep clayey loams.
Documented Species Distribution
Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Costa Rica, Cuba,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Grenada, Guadeloupe,
Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Montserrat,
Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, St Kitts and
Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago,
Virgin Islands (US)
Angola, Argentina, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso,
Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of
Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia,
French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
India, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania,
Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Sao
Tome et Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sri
Lanka, Sudan, Surinam, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, United
States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe
map above shows countries where the species has been planted. It does
neither suggest that the species can be planted in every ecological
zone within that country, nor that the species can not be planted in
other countries than those depicted. Since some tree species are
invasive, you need to follow biosafety procedures that apply to your
Its fruit is held in much the same estimation as Zapote. It is usually
eaten fresh and may also be used as an ingredient of ice cream and
sherbet. In Jamaica it is sometimes made into preserves. When unripe,
the star apple contains a sticky, astringent, latex, but on ripening, a
white translucent pulp with a sweet and pleasant flavour is formed
around the dark seeds.
Fiber: Good quality paper can be obtained from C. cainito wood.
Sapwood and heartwood reddish-brown to dark brown, strong, hard but not
durable, with fine to medium texture, fairly straight grain; specific
gravity of 0.70. It is used for general indoor construction, such as
planking, light framing, flooring, interior trim, lining, shelving,
cladding, panelling and partitioning. It is also suitable for
mouldings, light tool handles, inlaying, carving, joinery, furniture
and cabinet making. Good-quality veneer and plywood can be obtained
from it. The use of this wood is not expected to increase.
Tannin or dyestuff: Tannins are extracted from the bark.
Undersides of leaves are grated and applied as a poltice to a wound;
leaf decoction is taken orally for hypoglycaemia. Fruit is used in
treating haemorrhage or is cooked and used for fever. The bark, latex
and seeds also possess medicinal properties.
Shade or shelter: It is widely planted as a shade tree.
The foliage is bright blue-green above and coppery beneath, creating
attractive contrast when stirred by the wind; for its ornamental value
alone it merits cultivation. In Cuba, Jamaica and several other
tropical American countries, C. cainito is a common garden tree.
Other services: Branches of trees are used as a medium for growing orchids.
trees yield heavy crops of fruit, others bear little. Young trees are
sensitive to water stress in their 1st year, and growth during that
time is slow. Once the tree is established, growth rate and development
become more rapid. Deep mulching with straw or lawn clippings,
application of fertilizer and frequent dry-season watering all seem
necessary for success with this species.
storage behaviour is intermediate, and seeds should not be dried before
storage. Viability can be maintained for 6 months in moist storage at
20 deg. C.; 81% germination on desiccation to 4% mc (in equilibrium
with 30% r.h.); 23% germination after 14 months of subsequent hermetic
storage at 10 deg. C. for 1 seed lot. There are about 1100 seeds/kg.
Pests and Diseases
Insect pests include twig borers, carpenter moth, mealy bugs, scales and fruit flies. The oriental fruit fly Dacus dorsalis
is a serious pest of ripening fruit and renders the fruit unfit for
human consumption. Wrapping young fruit and collecting and destroying
the infested fruit may reduce the damage. Birds, bats and wild cats can
also cause considerable damage.
The fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae
causes dry, sooty rot on fruits, which copper fungicides can
controlled. In Queensland, Australia, Fusarium solani kills young trees
and affects limbs of older trees. An unidentified fungal pathogen
shrivels immature fruit in Florida.
Anon. 1986. The useful plants of India. Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, India.
MD & Fosberg FR (eds). 1983. A Revised handbook to the Flora of
Ceylon. 4:196-487. Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. ltd., New Delhi.
Hearne DA. 1975. Trees for Darwin and northern Australia. Australian Government Publishing Service.
Hong TD, Linington S, Ellis RH. 1996. Seed storage behaviour: a compendium. Handbooks for Genebanks: No. 4. IPGRI.
Popenoe W. 1974. Manual of the tropical and subtropical fruits. The Macmillann Company.
MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S. (eds.). 1998. PROSEA 5(3) Timber
trees: lesser known species. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
Timyan J. 1996. Bwa Yo: important trees of Haiti. South-East Consortium for International Development. Washington D.C.
EWM, Coronel RE (eds.). 1991. Plant Resources of South East Asia No 2.
Edible fruits and nuts. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.