Banana Diseases
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Wilt symptom, Panama disease of banana
Fig. 1
Wilt symptom, Panama disease of banana

Internal necrosis of banana pseudostem, a symptom of Panama wilt disease
Fig. 2
Internal necrosis of banana pseudostem, a symptom of Panama wilt disease

Banana: Black leaf streak (Black sigatoka). Pathogen: Mycosphaerella fijiensis (fungus)
Fig. 10
Banana: Black leaf streak (Black sigatoka). Pathogen: Mycosphaerella fijiensis (fungus)

Typical symptoms of banana bunchy top caused by the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)
Fig. 17
Typical symptoms of banana bunchy top caused by the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)

Winged (alate) banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa), vector of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)
Fig. 18
Winged (alate) banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa), vector of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)

Adult banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa)
Fig. 27
Adult banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa)

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Panama disease (Fusarium wilt)
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

Panama disease is of worldwide importance and is caused by the soil borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. There are four known races of the disease, three of which attack one or more banana cultivars. Symptoms of the disease do not appear on young
suckers. On mature plants symptoms include progressive yellowing and eventual death from older to younger leaves, so that only the youngest emerging leaf may remain; brown and black discoloration and slimy appearance of the water conducting vascular system (it may give off a bad odor as well); and death of the plant. At present there is no chemical control available. The only effective control measures are planting in land not infested with the fungus, the use of disease-free propagation material, and the planting of cultivars with resistance to the disease. Plantains are resistant to the fungus. 1

Banana: Panama wilt (historical)Panama wilt disease of bananaPanama wilt disease of bananaPanama wilt of banana
Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6
Panama disease of banana: rotten peduncleInternal necrosis of banana pseudostem, a symptom of Panama wilt diseasePanama wilt of banana (left). Necrotic tissue inside pseudostem. Healthy pseudostem (right)
Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9

Fig. 3. Banana: Panama wilt (historical)
Fig. 4,5,6. Panama wilt disease of banana
Fig. 7. Panama disease of banana: rotten peduncle
Fig. 8. Internal necrosis of banana pseudostem, a symptom of Panama wilt disease
Fig. 9. Panama wilt of banana (left). Necrotic tissue inside pseudostem. Healthy pseudostem (right)

Further Reading
Fusarium wilt of Panama disease Historic Overview from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations pdf 42 pages (large file)



Sigatoka (Yellow Sigatoka and Black Sigatoka)
Pathogen: Mycosphaerella fijiensis /Pseudocercospora fijiensis

Black sigatoka and yellow sigatoka are of worldwide importance; in general, where the two diseases are found, Black sigatoka dominates as the most severe disease causing fungus. Black sigatoka is an important leaf disease in Florida. Yellow sigatoka is caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella musicola and black sigatoka M. fijiensis. Symptoms of yellow sigatoka begin as pale green flecks that become brown with yellow haloes. As the disease progresses infected areas coalesce forming large areas of dead leaf tissue. Black sigatoka begins as minute reddish-brown flecks on the lower leaf surface but as the infection progresses dark flecks may be seen on the upper leaf surface as well. As the disease progresses the dark areas with yellow haloes surrounding dead leaf tissue coalesce until the entire leaf is killed. Warm temperatures, high humidity, and frequent rainfall are ideal for disease development. Sigatoka does not kill the plant but causes premature defoliation which results in reduced crop yield. 1

Banana cultivars differ in their susceptibility to sigatoka with the Cavendish group (AAA) and 'Pome' (AAB) bananas being highly susceptible. 'Sucrier' (AA), 'Bluggoe' (ABB), and 'Silk' (AAB) are of intermediate susceptibility, while 'Mysore' is only slightly susceptible. Fungicides are available for control but may not be necessary for banana plants in the home landscape. For more information, please contact your local Cooperative Extension Agent. 1

The streaks are absent on the leaves of young plants. Instead, circular leaf spots formSigatoka fungal. Black leaf streak lesion on banana leafBanana: Black leaf streak (Black sigatoka). Pathogen: Mycosphaerella fijiensis (fungus)
Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13
Banana: Black leaf streak aka Black SigatokaBanana: Black leaf streak aka Black SigatokaBanana: Black leaf streak (Black sigatoka). Pathogen: Mycosphaerella fijiensis (fungus)
Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16

Fig. 11. The streaks are absent on the leaves of young plants. Instead, circular leaf spots form
Fig. 12. Sigatoka fungal disease. Black leaf streak lesion on banana leaf
Fig. 13. Banana: Black leaf streak (Black sigatoka). Pathogen: Mycosphaerella fijiensis (fungus)
Fig. 14,15. Banana: Black leaf streak aka Black Sigatoka
Fig. 16. In areas with high rainfall, necrotic banana leaves turn very dark in color as the dead tissues becomes waterlogged. Hundreds of smaller black leaf streak lesions coalesce to form large, blighted areas on banana leaves.

Further Reading
Black Leaf Streak of Banana from the University of Hawaii Cooperative Extension Service CTARH pdf 10 pages



Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)
Vector: Black banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa

Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most serious diseases of banana. Once established, it is extremely difficult to eradicate or manage. BBTV is widespread in Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Taiwan, most of the South Pacific islands, and parts of India and Africa. BBTV does not occur in Central or South America.
Symptoms: Reduce internode distance, chlorotic leaf margins, erect leaf architecture, plant stunting, green J-hooks, mottled petioles and leaf sheaths, Mores code in leaf vines.

Petiole mottling, a symptom of banana bunchy topBanana bunchy top disease: Green J-hooks and Morse code in leaf venationMottled banana inflorescence infected with the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)Symptoms of banana bunchy top disease in older banana plantBanana bunchy top disease symptoms on a young 'Williams' hybrid banana plant
Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23
Colony of banana aphids (Pentalonia nigronervosa), vector of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). They often hide under the banana leaf sheathColony of banana aphids (Pentalonia nigronervosa), vector of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)These plants arose from the pseudostem of a central, infected mother plant that was cut down
Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26

Fig. 19. Petiole mottling, a symptom of banana bunchy top
Fig. 20. Banana bunchy top disease: Green J-hooks and Morse code in leaf venation
Fig. 21. Mottled banana inflorescence infected with the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)
Fig. 22. Symptoms of banana bunchy top disease in older banana plant
Fig. 23. Banana bunchy top disease symptoms on a young 'Williams' hybrid banana plant
Fig. 24. Colony of banana aphids (Pentalonia nigronervosa), vector of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). They often hide under the banana leaf sheath
Fig. 25. Colony of banana aphids (Pentalonia nigronervosa), vector of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)
Fig. 26. These plants arose from the pseudostem of a central, infected mother plant that was cut down

Further Reading
Bunchy Top Virus from the University of Hawaii Cooperative Extension Service CTARH pdf
Banana Bunchy Top: Detailed Signs and Symptoms from the University of Hawaii Cooperative Extension Service CTARH pdf 22 pages (large file)


Bibliography

1 Crane, Johathan H., Balerdi, Carlos F. and Maquire, Ian. "Bananas Growing in the Home Landscape." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is HS-10, one of a series of the Department of Horticultural Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. First printed 1972 as FC-10. Revised Jan. 1998, Dec. 2005, Oct. 2008, and Nov. 2016. Web. 14 Mar. 2017.

Photographs

Fig. 1 Nelson, Scot C. Wilt symptom, Panama disease of banana. 2004. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 20 March 2017.
Fig. 2,8 Nelson, Scot C. Internal necrosis of banana pseudostem, a symptom of Panama wilt disease. 2006. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 20 March 2017.
Fig. 3 Trujillo, E. E. Banana: Panama wilt (historical). 2012. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 20 March 2017. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 20 March 2017.
Fig. 4,5,6 Nelson, Scot C. Panama wilt disease of banana. 2005. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 20 March 2017. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 20 March 2017.
Fig. 7 Nelson, Scot C. Panama disease of banana: rotten peduncle. 2006. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 20 March 2017.
Fig. 9 Nelson, Scot C. Panama wilt of banana (left). Necrotic tissue inside pseudostem. Healthy pseudostem (right). 2014. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 20 March 2017.
Fig. 10,13,16 Nelson, Scot C. Banana: Black leaf streak (Black sigatoka). Pathogen: Mycosphaerella fijiensis (fungus). 2016. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 20 March 2017.
Fig. 11 Nelson, Scot C. The streaks are absent on the leaves of young plants. Instead, circular leaf spots form. 2016. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 20 March 2017.
Fig. 12 Nelson, Scot C. Sigatoka fungal. Black leaf streak lesion on banana leaf. 2007. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 20 March 2017.
Fig. 14,15 Nelson, Scot C. Banana: Black leaf streak aka Black Sigatoka. 2015. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 20 March 2017.

Fig. 17 Nelson, Scot C. Typical symptoms of banana bunchy top caused by the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). 2012. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 17 March 2017.
Fig. 18 Nelson, Scot C. Winged (alate) banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa), vector of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). 2011. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 17 March 2017.
Fig. 19 Nelson, Scot C. Petiole mottling, a symptom of banana bunchy top. 2008. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 17 March 2017.
Fig. 20 Nelson, Scot C. Banana bunchy top disease: Green J-hooks and Morse code in leaf venation. 2003. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 17 March 2017.
Fig. 21 Nelson, Scot C. Mottled banana inflorescence infected with the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). 2011. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 17 March 2017.
Fig. 22 Nelson, Scot C. Symptoms of banana bunchy top disease in older banana plant. 2011. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 17 March 2017.
Fig. 23 Nelson, Scot C. Banana bunchy top disease symptoms on a young 'Williams' hybrid banana plant. 2011. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 17 March 2017.
Fig. 24 Nelson, Scot C. Colony of banana aphids (Pentalonia nigronervosa), vector of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). They often hide under the banana leaf sheath. 2004. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 17 March 2017.
Fig. 25 Nelson, Scot C. Colony of banana aphids (Pentalonia nigronervosa), vector of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). 2004. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 17 March 2017.
Fig. 26 Nelson, Scot C. These plants arose from the pseudostem of a central, infected mother plant that was cut down. 2014. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 20 March 2017.
Fig. 27 Nelson, Scot C. Adult banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa). 2004. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 20 March 2017.

Published 17 Apr. 2014 LR. Last update 20 Mar. 2017 LR
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