Cacao, Chocolate Tree - Theobroma cacao L.
Kakaofrucht (Theobroma cacao) im Pflanzenhaus des Luisenparks in Mannheim
Fig. 1

Cocao leaves
Fig. 2
Cacao leaves

Close up of leaf
Fig. 3
Close up of leaf

Plant new growth
Fig. 4
Plant new growth

Theobroma cacao, Malvaceae, Cocoa Tree, Cacao Tree, flower. Botanical Garden KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany
Fig. 8
Flower growth habit

Theobroma cacao flower with Spanish labels
Fig. 9
Sepalo (sepal), estilo (style), estambre (stamen), antera cobijada en la copa (anther nestled in the petal), petalo (petal)

Fruit forming
Fig. 10

Cocoa cushion
Fig. 11
Cacao cushion

Theobroma cacao, Malvaceae, Cocoa Tree, Cacao Tree, flower. Botanical Garden KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany
Fig. 18
Fruit forming

Immature Pods
Fig. 19
Immature pods

Mature pods
Fig. 20
Mature pods

Cacao (Theobroma cacao)
Fig. 21
Fruit growth habit

Cross-section of a healthy cacao pod
Fig. 22
Cacao beans in a cacao pod showing the outer rind, the seeds, and inner pulp

Cacao disected
Fig. 23
Cacao disected

Cocoa tree
Fig. 28
Cacao tree in natural habitat

Growth habit
Fig. 29

View of the coconut grove at the La Chonita Hacienda in Tabasco, Mexico
Fig. 32  
View of the coconut grove at the La Chonita Hacienda in Tabasco, Mexico

Toasted cacao beans grown at the La Chonita Hacienda in Tabasco, Mexico
Fig. 33  
Toasted cacao beans grown at the La Chonita Hacienda in Tabasco, Mexico

Inside the pods, that grow up the tree's trunk, are where the cocoa seeds are located
Fig. 34  
Inside the pods, that grow up the tree's trunk, are where the cocoa seeds are located

Cocoa fruit, seeds and chocolate
Fig. 35
Cacao fruit, seeds and chocolate

Chocolate
Fig. 36

Cacao fruit, Columbia
  Fig. 57
Cacao worker in Columbia

Entrée de l'écomusée La Maison du Cacao à Pointe-Noire en Guadeloupe (France)
  Fig. 58
Entrée de l'écomusée La Maison du Cacao à Pointe-Noire en Guadeloupe (France)

Lord of the Cacao beans — colonial Mexican sculpture from 16th century. In the Metropolitan Cathedral of Mexico City
  Fig. 59
Lord of the Cacao beans — colonial Mexican sculpture from 16th century. In the Metropolitan Cathedral of Mexico City

A replica of the Statue of Liberty at Hershey's Chocolate World in New York New York hotel in Las Vegas
Fig. 60
A replica of the Statue of Liberty at Hershey's Chocolate World in New York New York hotel in Las Vegas

Statue ventant Amieux Frères - photo prise au Musée du château des ducs de Bretagne de Nantes
Fig. 61
Statue ventant Amieux Frères - photo prise au Musée du château des ducs de Bretagne de Nantes


Scientific name
Theobroma cacao subsp. cacao and. T. cacao subsp. sphaerocarpum 1
Common names
Cocoa and chocolate (English), cacao (Spanish), cacaoyer and cacaotier (French), kakao (German), cacau (Portuguese)
Synonyms
Theobroma cacao subsp. cacao; T. cacao f. leiocarpum (Bernoulli) Ducke; T. cacao subsp. leiocarpum (Bernoulli) Cuatrec.; T. cacao var. leiocarpum (Bernoulli) Cif.; T. cacao subsp. pentagona (Bernoulli) León; T. cacao subsp. sativa (Aubl.) León; T. cacao subsp. sphaerocarpum (A.Chev.) Cuatrec. 5
Relatives
Cola nut (Cola acuminata)
Family
Sterculiaceae
Origin
Central and northern South America 1
USDA hardiness zones
Truly tropical areas characterized by year-round temperatures at or above 68°F 1
Uses
Essential ingredient in numerous commercial products, including candy, desserts, and drinks 1
Height
25–30 ft (7.6–9.1 m) 1
Plant habit
Evergreen small tree with few branches under tropical environments
Trunk/bark/branches
Bark smooth, dark brown and somewhat scaly; erect, adventitious shoot: 6
Pruning requirement
Plant height should be limited to 68 ft (1.8–2.4 m) 1
Leaves
Lanceolate; bright green; up to 24 in. (61 cm) long by 4 in. (10 cm) wide 1
Flowers
Small; procuced in clusters directly on trunk or older branches.
Fruit
Called a pod (technically it is a drupe); thick peel; 4-13 in. (10–33 cm); cylindrical to round shaped with longitudinal ribs; 20-60 seeds 1
Season
October-January
USDA Nutrient Content pdf
Light requirement
Part shade
Soil tolerances
Rich, organic, well-drained, moist, deep soils 4
PH preference
Slightly acid to neutral
Drought tolerance
Not tolerant
Aerosol salt tolerance
Unknown
Soil salt tolerance
Unknown
Cold tolerance
Damage temp. 50°F (10°C)
Wind tolerance
No wind tolerance
Plant spacing
10-15 ft (3.1–4.6 m) 1
Roots
Tap root with ramifying branch roots 8
Invasive potential *
None reported
Diseases/Pest resistance
Cocoa tree is susceptible to many diseases and insects
Known hazard
Theobromine, bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, is poisonous to dogs



Reading Material

Cocoa (Chocolate Bean) Growing in the Landscape from the University of Florida pdf 6 pages
Theobroma cacao L from the Center for New Crops and Plants Products, Purdue University
Processing Cocoa from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
Theobroma cacao: from Bud to Bean by S. Madell of tava.com.au
Making Cacao Growing a Piece of Cake from Tropical Fruit at Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden



It is appropriate to use "cacao" to refer to the plant and its cultivation and "xoxoa" to refer to the beans or the product used to make chocolate. 9
The generic name is derived from the Greek for "food of the gods"; from θεός (theos), meaning "god", and βρῶμα (broma), meaning "food". 6
Theobroma cacao is the taxonomic classification for the plant also called the cacao tree and the cocoa tree. 6

Origin

Origin of this tropical understory tree in the family of the Sterculiaceae are the Amazon Headwaters from where it moved to Central America. Cocoa cultivation began by Mayan tribes in Central America, ca. 1500 BC. 

Description
There are two distinct types of cocoa, Criollo types (cacao dulce) that developed north of the Panama isthmus, and Forastero (cacao amargo) which originated in the Amazon basin. Criollo types were cultivated by the indigenous people of Central and South America and were the type Europeans were first exposed to. Commercial production commenced in Brazil using the Forastero types, mainly a uniform type called Amelonado. Both types were distributed throughout the Caribbean, where they hybridized in Trinidad, creating a distinct hybrid called Trinitario. Spanish explorers took cocoa to the Philippines, where it spread throughout southeast Asia, India, and Ceylon. Amelonado cocoa was taken to West Africa. 1

Cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao) at Manado, North Sulawesi
Fig. 30

Fig. 30. Cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao) at Manado, North Sulawesi

Leaves
Leaves are found toward the ends of the branches. Leaves are simple with a long petiole, which has a swelling at each end called a pulvinus. The pulvinus allows the leaf to swivel to catch sunlight. Leaves are lanceolate, bright green, and up to 24 inches (61 cm) long by 4 inches (10 cm) wide. Young leaves have a pinkish-red color. They turn green as they mature. As the plant grows new leaves, older ones may drop. 1

Theobroma cacao (Cacao, cocoa tree). Leaves. Kula Ace Hardware and Nursery, Maui, Hawaii Flush of new leaves New leaf growht
Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Fig. 5. Theobroma cacao (Cacao, cocoa tree). Leaves. Kula Ace Hardware and Nursery, Maui, Hawaii
Fig. 6. Flush of new leaves
Fig. 7. New growth showing after pruning of branch

Flowers
Cocoa flowers and fruits on the older branches and trunk (called cauliflorous flowering). One to 5 flowers arise from a special tissue along the leafless parts of the stem, called the cushion (Fig. 3). Flowers may arise from this cushion repeatedly. Flowers are small, with 5 petals and sepals and 10 stamens (Fig. 2). They are hermaphroditic (they have male and female plant parts). 1
The time from flowering (fertilization) to fruit maturity ranges from 5 to 6 months, depending upon temperatures. 1

Cocoa flower Cocoa flower Theobroma cacao flower
Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14
Closed and open blossom and fruits on the trunk of Theobroma cacao (ÖBG Bayreuth) Theobroma cacao Family: Sterculiaceae Floral diagram showing partial inflorescence
Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17

Fig. 15. Closed and open blossom and fruits on the trunk of Theobroma cacao (ÖBG Bayreuth)
Fig. 16. Theobroma cacao inflorescense. Family: Sterculiaceae
Fig. 17. Floral diagram showing partial inflorescence

Fruit

Cocoa plants may set a large number of fruit, which may lead to plant decline. In general, only 1 to 2 pods should be allowed to develop at any one flowering cushion on a limb. In other words, if more than 1 of the flowers from a cushion sets a fruit, leave only 1 or 2 to develop. Removing an excessive number of pods will result in faster development and larger pods of remaining fruit. 1
The fruit is called a pod (technically it is a drupe), and the time from flower pollination to a fully developed pod takes 5 to 7 months or more. The pod has a thick peel (pericarp) and may be 4 to 13 inches (10–33 cm) long. It may be cylindrical to round shaped with longitudinal ribs. The pod may be green or green-white, turning yellow upon ripening, or it may be red and develop some yellow color upon ripening. The pods are very attractive from an ornamental standpoint. Pods contain 20 to 60 seeds. Seeds are covered with a white, pinkish or brownish, subacid mucilage that is sweet. Seeds may be extracted and the mucilage surrounding the seed consumed. The seeds are processed to make chocolate. 1

Theobroma cacao, Malvaceae, Cocoa Tree, Cacao Tree, flower. Botanical Garden KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany Cocoa pods in varying levels of ripeness growing on the trunk of a tree (cauliflory). Cabosses de cacao à Tayap (Cameroun) Cocoa pod opened
Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27

Fig. 24. Young fruit
Fig. 25. Cacao pods in varying levels of ripeness growing on the trunk of a tree (cauliflory)
Fig. 26. Cabosses de cacao à Tayap (Cameroun)

Cacao Varieties Explained from Cocoa and Chocolate, the Tava chocolate blog

Harvesting
Pods should be harvested soon after developing their characteristic yellow or red and yellow peel color. The pods should be clipped off carefully. Pulling them off may damage the cushion and reduce pod production. The pod may be opened with a knife and the mucilaginous seeds removed. 1
In your home garden the cacao tree will take up to four years to begin to bear fruit. 10

Pollination
Cocoa is pollinated by crawling and flying insects. Some cocoa types and varieties are self incompatible, requiring cross pollination with a compatible variety. The Amelonado variety is fully self-compatible.
Self-incompatibility of cocoa flowers may result in little to no pod production. Therefore either a self-compatible type (variety) should be grown or 2 or more compatible types (varieties), should be grown near each other. Since cocoa is normally pollinated by specific midge species (Forcipomyia spp.) that may not be present in Florida, hand pollination is one way to increase the chance of pod formation. Flowers usually open in the early morning, and hand pollination during the morning hours is best. This may be accomplished by using a small artist's paint brush that is first placed in contact with the anthers of an open flower and then placed in contact with the stigma of another flower. 1

Hormonal changes after compatible and incompatible pollination in Theobroma cacao L.  from the University of Louisiana pdf 6 pages

Propagation

Is by seedairlayeringcuttings or grafting. Seeds germinate in 5-10 days, but lose viability quickly if they dry out. Seedlings should be grown under 50% shade. Cacao may be cleft or patch grafted.
Propagation may be by cuttings, buddings or graftings, but seeding is cheaper. Seeds germinate at maturity, and are viable only a short time. They may be stored 10–13 weeks if moisture content is kept at 50%. 4

Climate
Cocoa evolved as an understory shade tree in hot, humid, tropical rainforest areas dominated by cloudiness and with well distributed rainfall and a short dry period. South Florida's warm subtropical environment is very marginal for cocoa growing, and plants may be damaged or killed during prolonged cool or brief freezing temperatures. 1
Optimum temperatures for cocoa growth range from 65 to 90°F (18–32°C). Temperatures below 50°F (10°C) may damage or kill the plant and temperatures in excess of 90°F (32°C) may limit plant growth. Flowering only occurs when temperatures are at or above 68°F
(20°C). 1

Planting
Refer to the University of Florida publication for detailed information on planting.
Cocoa plants are adapted to and grow best in hot, humid tropical areas with evenly distributed rainfall. Truly tropical areas are characterized by year-round temperatures at or above 68°F and no freezing temperatures. 1

Roots
Seedling cocoa has a tap root that may extend several feet in deep soils. In addition, secondary, shallow, fibrous roots radiate laterally from the trunk; these roots are the major roots for water and nutrient absorption. 1

Characteristic root system of the cocoa tree
Fig. 31

Fig. 31. Characteristic root system of the cocoa tree

Pruning
Newly planted trees should be allowed to grow to 1 to 2 ft (0.3–0.6 m). If no branching occurs, then the top should be cut back to initiate branching. Three to 4 main branches should be allowed to develop. Remove all others. 1
Plant height should be limited to 6 to 8 ft (1.8–2.4 m) to facilitate care and make protection from winds, excessive light, and cold temperatures easier. Periodically, selected branches should be removed to allow an increase in light and air movement inside the plant canopy. 1
Pruning should be done at the end of the summer to prepare the tree for the following crop. 10

Cocao Cultural Calendar

Irrigation
Cocoa require access to soil moisture (water) nearly year round and thus benefit from regular watering during dry periods. Drought stress leads to leaf and flower drop and poor fruit production. 1

Pests
Numerous insects and diseases are reported to attack cocoa plants, however, since cocoa is rarely grown in south Florida, insect problems may be reduced although not eliminated. Contact your local county extension agent for current control recommendations. 1

Diseases
Numerous diseases are reported to attack cocoa plants. Because cocoa is rarely grown in south Florida, however, disease problems may be reduced, although not eliminated. Several Phytophthora species common to Florida are reported to attack cocoa shoots, leaves, roots, and pods. Several pod rotting fungi may be present in Florida.
Never propagate new cocoa plants from mother plants showing symptoms of distorted growth. The distorted growth may indicate a viral infection.

Food Uses
Chocolate is sold in chocolate bars, which come in dark chocolate, milk chocolate and white chocolate varieties. Chocolate is used as an ingredient in a huge variety of candy bars which are coated in chocolate. Chocolate is used as a flavouring product in many desserts. Some non-alcoholic beverages contain chocolate. Some alcoholic liqueurs are flavoured with chocolate. Chocolate is a popular flavour of ice cream and pudding, and chocolate sauce is a commonly added as a topping on ice cream sundaes. 3

Ganaché de chocolate Tartufo. Chocolate gelato with a core of vanilla gelato, and covered in chocolate and syrup Marocchino or Mocacchino
Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 39
A cockatil made with brandy, creme de cacao and cream Chocolate tart with frangipane in the center. Frangipane is a filling made from or flavored like almonds
Fig. 40 Fig. 41
A variant of "Bicerin": a hot drink made with chocolate, espresso, and whipped cream; from Turin Chocolatería San Ginés, Madrid. This place is open til 7am for those 3am churros cravings Caracs are Swiss mini tarts with chocolate filling, covered with green icing
Fig. 42 Fig. 43 Fig. 44
Charlotte aux poires et chocolat. On voit clairement le biscuit à la cuillère et la construction du gateau Ralph had the profiteroles with vanilla ice cream and chocolate sauce Balthazar New York
Fig. 45 Fig. 46

Fig. 37. Ganaché de chocolate
Fig. 38. Tartufo. Chocolate gelato with a core of vanilla gelato, and covered in chocolate and syrup
Fig. 39. Marocchino or Mocacchino - a shot of espresso with a sprinkling of cacao and milk foam spooned on top
Fig. 40. A cockatil made with brandy, creme de cacao and cream
Fig. 41. Chocolate tart with frangipane in the center. Frangipane is a filling made from or flavored like almonds
Fig. 42. A variant of "Bicerin": a hot drink made with chocolate, espresso, and whipped cream, from Turin
Fig. 43. Chocolatería San Ginés, Madrid. This place is open til 7am for those 3am churros (fried-dough pastry snack) cravings.
Fig. 44. Caracs are Swiss mini tarts with chocolate filling, covered with green icing
Fig. 45. Charlotte aux poires et chocolat. On voit clairement le biscuit à la cuillère et la construction du gateau
Fig. 46. Ralph had the profiteroles with vanilla ice cream and chocolate sauce Balthazar New York

How Chocolate is manufactured by S. Madell of  the Chocolate Review website
How Chocolate is Made from Princeton University pdf 12 pages

Other Products
Cocoa (chocolate) for drink, as commonly sold in El Salvador Taza Chocolate's Mexican Discs Cri Cri, tipico cioccolatino pralinato piemontese Sarments du Médoc
Fig. 47 Fig. 48 Fig. 49 Fig. 50
Farina Eau de Cologne Flacon made of chocolate by Stollwerck Armenian Chocolate A Swedish box of dark chocolates called "Aladdin mörk choklad" (top layer, identical to the bottom layer) Edmond Briottet Creme de Cacao Brun Liqueur
Fig. 51 Fig. 52 Fig. 53 Fig. 54
Cacao Beer from the Prael Brewery Amsterdam commissioned by Metropolitan Chocolate C.V. Cocoa powder
Fig. 55 Fig. 56

Fig. 47. Cocoa (chocolate) for drink, as commonly sold in El Salvador
Fig. 48. Taza Chocolate's Mexican discs
Fig. 49. Cri Cri, tipico cioccolatino pralinato piemontese, Italy
Fig. 50. Sarments (chocolate twigs) du Médoc, France
Fig. 51. Farina Eau de Cologne Flacon made of chocolate by Stollwerck
Fig. 52. Armenian chocolate
Fig. 53. A Swedish box of dark chocolates called "Aladdin mörk choklad" (top layer, identical to the bottom layer)
Fig. 54. Edmond Briottet Creme de Cacao Brun Liqueur, France
Fig. 55. Cacao Beer from the Prael Brewery Amsterdam commissioned by Metropolitan Chocolate C.V.
Fig. 56. Cocoa powder

Medicinal Uses **

In general chocolate and cocoa is considered to be a rich source of antioxidants such as procyanidins and flavanoids, which may impart anti aging properties. Chocolate and cocoa also contain a high level of flavonoids, specifically epicatechin, which may have beneficial cardiovascular effects on health. 2

Other Uses
Cocoa butter is used in confections and in manufacture of tobacco, soap, and cosmetics. Cocoa butter has been described as the world's most expensive fat, used rather extensively in the emollient "bullets" used for hemorrhoids. 4

General
Caution, Fruit and Plant Enthusiasts: Cocoa plants are adapted to and grow best in hot, humid tropical areas with evenly distributed rainfall. Truly tropical areas are characterized by year-round temperatures at or above 68°F and no freezing temperatures. However, cocoa plants with their beautiful foliage and striking pods (fruit), can be grown in well protected areas, and they make unique, interesting, challenging, and fun additions to the home landscape. 1
Mayas and Aztec attributed divine origin to cocoa tree (brought by god Quetzacoatl). The precious cocoa beans were used as a currency. The sacred beverage called "chocolatl" was consumed from golden cups.
Cocoa is grown in 58 countries and on more than 17 million acres (6.9 million ha) world-wide and is worth in excess of $4 billion to the world's economy annually. 1

Chocolate melanger mixing raw ingredients. Ghirardelli Square, San Francisco, California USA. Hershey Conche in the early 1900s made by J.M. Lehmann in Dresden / Paris. This machine is on display as part of the Hershey Story Collection Granite roller and Granite base of a conche used by Hershey in the early 1900s. This is on display as part of the Hershey Story Collection
Fig. 62 Fig. 63 Fig. 64
Chocolatier assembling chocolate eggs, Choco-Laté fair, Brugge, Belgium Chocolate Easter egg Silver chocolate pot with hinged finial to insert a molinet or swizzle stick
Fig. 65 Fig. 66 Fig. 67

Fig. 62. Chocolate melanger mixing raw ingredients. Ghirardelli Square, San Francisco, California USA.
Fig. 63. Hershey Conche in the early 1900s made by J.M. Lehmann in Dresden / Paris. This machine is on display as part of the Hershey Story Collection.
Fig. 64. Granite roller and Granite base of a conche used by Hershey in the early 1900s. This is on display as part of the Hershey Story Collection.
Fig. 65. Chocolatier assembling chocolate eggs, Choco-Laté fair, Brugge, Belgium
Fig. 66. Chocolate Easter egg
Fig. 67. Silver chocolate pot with hinged finial to insert a molinet or swizzle stick


Further Reading
The Science of Cacao Fermentation from Cocoa and Chocolate, the Tava chocolate blog
Chocolate Flavor Chemistry by S. Madell of the Chocolate Review website
Cocoa History by S. Madell of the Chocolate Review website
World Cocoa Foundation ext. link
International Cocoa Organization ext. link
Cacao (Theobroma cacao) from the Specialty Crops for Pacific Island Agroforestry pdf 23 pages
Cocoa Botanical Art


List of Growers and Vendors
Bibliography

1 Crane, Honathan H., Balerdi, Carlos F. and Joyner, Gene. "Cocoa (Chocolate Bean) Growing in the Florida Home Landscape." edis.ifas.ufl.edu.  This document is HS1057, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date Nov. 2005. Revised Nov. 2016. Web. 7 June 2017.
2 "Cocoa bean." wikipedia.org. Web. 4 Oct. 2014.
3 "Chocolate." wikipedia.org. Web. 5 Oct. 2014.
4  Duke, James A. "Theobroma cacao L." hort.purdue.edu. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished. 1983. Web. 5 Oct. 2014.
5 "Theobroma cacao synonyms." The Plant List (2010). Version 1. theplantlist.org. Web. 7 June 2017.
6 "Theobroma cacao."  wikipedia.org. Web. 12 June 2017.
7 Figueira, Antonio, Jules Janick, and James N. BeMiller. 'New Products from Theobroma cacao: Seed Pulp and Pod Gum." J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), New crops, Wiley, New York, 1993, pp. 475-478. Accessed 12 June 2017.
8 Duke, James A. "Theobroma cacao L.". hort.purdue.edu. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished. 1983. Web. 5 Oct. 2014.
9 Hebbar, Prakash, et al. Farm and Forestry Production and Marketing Profile for Cacao, Theobroma cacao. Elevitch, C.R. (ed). Specialty Crops for Pacific Island Agroforestry, Permanent Agriculture Resouces (PAR), Holualoa, Hawi'i. agroforestry.net/scps 2011.
10 Ledesma, Noris. "Making Cacao Growing a Piece of Cake." fairchildgarden.org. Miami Herald. 6 Jan. 2013. Web. 15 June 2017.

Photographs

Fig. 1 Jacob, Manna. Eine Kakaofrucht (Theobroma cacao) im Pflanzenhaus des Luisenparks in Mannheim. 2005. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY 2.5). Web. 14 June 2017.
Fig. 2,3,4,6,11,28 Kwan. Theobroma cacao (Cocoa Tree). 2008. natureloveyou.sg. Web. 3 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 5 Starr, Forest and Kim. Theobroma cacao (Cacao, cocoa tree). Leaves. Kula Ace Hardware and Nursery, Maui, Hawaii. 2007. starrenvironmental.com. Under  (CC BY 4.0). Web. 14 June 2017.
Fig. 7,29 Sample, Jane. Theobroma cacao. 2015. flickr.com. Web. 17 June 2017.
Fig. 8,14,18,24 Zell, H. Theobroma cacao, Malvaceae, Cocoa Tree, Cacao Tree, flower. Botanical Garden KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany. 2009.  commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0 de). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 9 Zell, H and Domste. Theobroma cacao flower with Spanish labels. 2012. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0). Web. 14 June 2017.
Fig. 10  Robitaille, Liette. "Cocoa Series at Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden". 2014. growables.org. JPG file.
Fig. 12 Domste. Macrophotography of Theobroma cacao flower (closed) (University of Vienna). 2012. wikipedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0). Web. 14 June 2017.
Fig. 13 Domste. Macrophotography of T. cacao flower (opened) (University of Vienna). 2012. wikipedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0). Web. 14 June 2017.
Fig. 15 Chianti. Closed and open blossom and fruits on the trunk of Theobroma cacao (ÖBG Bayreuth). 2016. wikipedia.org. Under  (CC BY 3.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 16 Stüber, Kurt. Theobroma cacao. Family: Sterculiaceae. 2003. wikipedia.org. Under  (CC BY 3.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 17 Nefronus. Floral diagram showing partial inflorescence. 2014. wikipedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 14 June 2017.
Fig. 19,27 Theobroma cacao (Cocoa Tree). N.d. Top Tropicals Tropical Plant Catalog. toptropicals.com. Web. 3 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 21 Luisovalles. Cacao (Theobroma cacao). 2010. wikipedia.org. Under  (CC BY 3.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 22 Weller, Keith. Cross-section of a healthy cacao pod. N.d. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. ars.usda.gov. Public domain. Web. 4 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 23 Calderon, Cesar. Cacao, Theobroma cacao. 2006. USDA APHIS PPQ. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0). Web. 6 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 25 Medicaster. Cocoa pods in varying levels of ripeness growing on the trunk of a tree (cauliflory). 2006. wikipedia.org. Public domain. Web. 4 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 26 Freyssinge, Eric. Cabosses de cacao à Tayap (Cameroun). 2016. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 30 Stevanopuasa. Cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao) at Manado, North Sulawesi. 2014. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0 de). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 31 Caracteristic of the root system of the cocoa tree. 1891. The chocolate-plant (Theobroma cacao) and its products. File JPG.
Fig. 32 Garcia, Alejandro Linares. View of the coconut grove at the La Chonita Hacienda in Tabasco, Mexico. 2013. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0). Web. 14 June 2017.
Fig. 33 AlejandroLinaresGarcia. Toasted cacao beans grown at the La Chonita Hacienda in Tabasco, Mexico. 2011. wikipedia.org. Under  (CC BY 3.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 34 Lolay. Inside the pods, that grow up the tree's trunk, are where the cocoa seeds are located. 2008. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 14 June 2017.
Fig. 35 Jaitt, Oscar. Acocoa or Chocolate tree (Theobroma cacao). N.d. fruitlovers.com. Web. 3 Oct. 2014.
 toptropicals.com. Web. 3 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 36,56,57 Cacao. pixabay.com. Web. 15 June 2017.
Fig. 37 Contreras, Luisa. Ganaché de chocolate. 2013. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 38 Fox, Anna. Tartufo. Chocolate gelato with a core of vanilla gelato, and covered in chocolate and syrup. Our delicious dessert at Ai Pescatori in Burano. 2008. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 39 Chheda, Dhinal. Marocchino or Mocacchino. 2016. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 40 Lam, Jason. A cockatil made with brandy, creme de cacao and cream. 2008. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 41 fugzu. Chocolate tart with frangipane in the center. Frangipane is a filling made from or flavored like almonds. 2009.  commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 42 Takeaway. A variant of "Bicerin": a hot drink made with chocolate, espresso, and whipped cream; from Turin. 2016. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 43 Lucas, Tim. Chocolatería San Ginés, Madrid. This place is open til 7am for those 3am churros cravings. 2012. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 44 Rieser, Micha L. Caracs are Swiss mini tarts with chocolate filling, covered with green icing. 2007. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 45 Popo le Chien. Charlotte aux poires et chocolat. On voit clairement le biscuit à la cuillère et la construction du gateau. 2016. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 46 Daily, Ralph. Ralph had the profiteroles with vanilla ice cream and chocolate sauce Balthazar New York. 2014. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 47 Ll1324. Cocoa (chocolate) for drink, as commonly sold in El Salvador. 2012. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 48 guerrerov, Andrea. Taza Chocolate's Mexican Discs. 2015. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 49 Rollopack. Cri Cri, tipico cioccolatino pralinato piemontese. 2015. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 50 JPS68. Sarments du Médoc. 2015. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 51 Farina, Johann Maria. Farina Eau de Cologne Flacon made of chocolate by Stollwerck. 1933. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0 de). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 52 Narek75. Armenian Chocolate. 2014. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 53 Lindqvist, Hans . A Swedish box of dark chocolates called "Aladdin mörk choklad" (top layer, identical to the bottom layer). 2014. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0 de). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 54 Lockyer, Dominic. Edmond Briottet Creme de Cacao Brun Liqueur. 2014. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 55 Denkhenk. Cacao Beer from the Prael Brewery Amsterdam commissioned by Metropolitan Chocolate C.V.. 2012. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0 de). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 58 Tux-Man. Entrée de l'écomusée La Maison du Cacao à Pointe-Noire en Guadeloupe (France). 2007. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 59 Anagoria. Lord of the Cacao beans — colonial Mexican sculpture from 16th century. In the Metropolitan Cathedral of Mexico City. 2013. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0 de). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 60 Supercarwaar. A replica of the Statue of Liberty at Hershey's Chocolate World in New York. Hotel in Las Vegas. 2015. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 61 Pinpin. Statue ventant Amieux Frères - photo prise au Musée du château des ducs de Bretagne de Nantes. 2007. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 62 Acharya, Sanjay. Chocolate melanger mixing raw ingredients. Ghirardelli Square, San Francisco, California USA. 2008. wikipedia.org. Under  (CC BY-SA 3.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 63 Z22. Hershey Conche in the early 1900s made by J.M. Lehmann in Dresden / Paris. This machine is on display as part of the Hershey Story Collection. 2014. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0 de). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 64 Z22. Granite roller and Granite base of a conche used by Hershey in the early 1900s. This is on display as part of the Hershey Story Collection. 2014. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0 de). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 65 Oriel. Chocolatier assembling chocolate eggs, Choco-Laté fair, Brugge, Belgium. 2007. commons.wikimedia.org. Public Domain. Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 66 Myrabella. Chocolate Easter egg. 2011. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 16 June 2017.
Fig. 67 McGlinchey, Valerie. Silver chocolate pot with hinged finial to insert a molinet or swizzle stick, London 1714–15 (Victoria and Albert Museum). 2010. wikipedia.org. Under  (CC BY-SA 2.0 uk). Web. 16 June 2017.

UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas
** Information provided is not intended to be used as a guide for treatment of medical conditions.

Published Feb. 2014 LR. Last update 17 June 2017 LR
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