|Basil - Ocimum basilicum|
O. basilicum ‘Cinnamon'
Spicy Globe basil
O. basilicum var. purpurescens
Common Basil, Italian Basil, St.
to 10' (20cm to 3m) depending on the cultivar
Small, white and arranged in a terminal spike
USDA Nutrient Content of fresh basil pdf
USDA Nutrient Content of dry basil pdf
A cool season crop in Florida; plant in the early spring or fall
sun to part shade,
with protection from the harsh afternoon sun
will occur at 50°F (10°C)
Basil from the Clemson University Cooperative Extension pdf 5 pages
or half hardy annual. A strongly aromatic herb with a
great diversity of cultivars and flavors.
Tropical Asia. Ocimum, derives from the ancient Greek word, okimon, meaning smell, referring to the striking nature of basil’s fragrance, and basilicum, is Latin for basilikon, meaning kingly/royal in Greek
In warmer climates it is a perennial. Basil is suitable to grow in containers. It likes water and well drained soil.
Here are a few of the many cultivars:
Ocimum minimum. A bushy plant with smaller leaves than Sweet Basil.
O. kilimandscharicum. Can grow into a 10' (300cm) tree, the leaf aroma is similar to camphor.
O. gratissimum (clove chemotype). This tropical basil can grow into a 5'-6' (150cm - 180cm) small tree. Leaves have a strong clove aroma as well as a basil flavor. This is not a cultivar, but one of several chemotypes of O. gratissimum having different signature fragrances.
O. minimum. Smaller leaves then Bush Basil with a more upright growth pattern and quite suitable for using whole sprigs for flavorings.
O. tenuiflorum. A sacred plant of the Hindu religion, native to India and previously called O. sanctum with a strong clove fragrance.
O. basilicum var. purpurescens. Named varieties include 'Purple Ruffles' and 'Dark Opal'. Traditionally sold as a flowering bedding plant having light purple flowers and dark purple foliage, it can also be used as the other edible basils.
O. basilicum. This is common basil with wrinkled leaves, white flowers and growing to about 2' (60cm).
Spacing: 1 foot apart, depending on the cultivar
Basil likes water and well drained soil
Seed: Keep moist and in a dark or light area until germination, many cultivars taking 8 to 14 days; approximately 70 days to harvest
Sowing Depth: ¼ in. (6 mm)
Plant spacing: 1 in. (30 cm)
Transplant when seedlings are about 6 in. (15 cm)
Place in water,
a 4 in. (10 cm) stem, without flowers, lower leaves removed; pot up
when the roots have formed
Promote a bushy habit by pinching growth points; cut off flowers when they appear preventing seed formation and encouraging good leaf production
Pick younger leaves as they contain more oil in the morning when the essential oils are at their strongest and before the heat of the afternoon sun. Tender leaves may be used fresh or dried along with the flowers.
Basil is subject to a variety of pests which include Japanese beetles, grasshoppers, slugs, aphids, spider mites, whiteflies, cutworms and nematodes, and diseases such as Downy Mildew (Peronospora Leaf Spot (Colleotrichum sp.), Bacterial Leaf Spot (Pseudomonas cichorii), Fusarium Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum).
Leaves: Thai, Vietnamese and Italian cuisines. Pesto, serve with tomatoes, use to flavor vinegars and teas.
Leaves: potpourri, perfumery, essential oils.List Of Growers and Vendors
1 "What conditions are necessary for starting basil from seed?" eXtension.org. eXtension Foundation. 5 Sept. 2008. Web. 21 Jan. 2014.
Fig. 1,2,3,5 Jackson, Karen. "Basil Series," 2013. growables.org. JPG File.
Fig. 4 Basil Cultivars. N.d. Trade Winds Fruit Exotic Seed Catalogue, California. tradewindsfruit.com. Web. 4 Jan 2014.
Published Sept. 2013 KJ. Updated 13 July 2014 KJ