Watermelon Pests
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Cabbage looper
Fig. 1
Early instar larva of the cabbage looper

Larva of the beet armyworm
Fig. 5
Larva of the beet armyworm

Larva of fall armyworm
Fig. 8
Larva of fall armyworm

Lateral view of a larva of the yellowstriped armyworm
Fig. 13
Lateral view of a larva of the yellowstriped armyworm

Larva of the tobacco budworm
Fig. 16
Larva of the tobacco budworm

Larva of the corn earworm
Fig. 19
Larva of the corn earworm

Mature saltmarsh caterpillar
Fig. 22
Mature saltmarsh caterpillar

Granulate cutworm
Fig. 28
Granulate cutworm

Wild lettuce aphid Uroleucon pseudambrosia (Olive, 1963)
Fig. 31
Wild lettuce aphid Uroleucon pseudambrosia (Olive, 1963)

Nymps (mixed ages) and dark form of winglwss adult of melon aphids
Fig. 32
Nymps (mixed ages) and dark form of winglwss adult of melon aphids

Adult green peach aphid
Fig. 39
Adult green peach aphid

Cowpea aphid
Fig. 43
Cowpea aphid

Adults of melon Thrips palmi Karny
Fig. 46
Adults of melon Thrips palmi Karny

Adult Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring or B. tabaci (Gennadius), B strain
Fig. 50
Adult Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring or B. tabaci (Gennadius), B strain

Leaf miner fly collected from chard leaves in Howell Collective Garden
Fig. 54
Leaf miner fly collected from chard leaves in Howell Collective Garden

Adult American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)
Fig. 58
Adult American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)

Multiple views of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata LeConte
Fig. 62
Multiple views of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata LeConte

Three mole cricket species: shortwinged mole cricket, Scapteriscus abbreviatus (left); tawny mole cricket, S. vicinus (center); southern mole cricket, S.borellii (right).
Fig. 65
Three mole cricket species: shortwinged mole cricket, Scapteriscus abbreviatus (left); tawny mole cricket, S. vicinus (center); southern mole cricket, S.borellii (right).

Dorsal view of an adult female whitefringed beetle, Naupactus sp.
Fig. 67
Dorsal view of an adult female whitefringed beetle, Naupactus sp.


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Insects and mites can cause severe problems in the production of watermelon, squash, cucumber, and cantaloupe either through direct damage to the crop or through transmission of disease agents, such as the aphid-borne mosaic viruses. Common pests of cucurbits are described below. The importance of a particular insect will vary by region and by crop. For example root maggots are more important in North Florida and melon thrips in South Florida. Pickleworm and melonworm rarely attack watermelon. 1
The principal insect and mite pests on watermelons in Florida are aphids, rindworms (caterpillars feeding on the rind, including beet and fall armyworms, cabbage looper, tobacco budworm, corn earworm, saltmarsh caterpillar, and others), whiteflies, and thrips. Occasional or minor arthropod pests include seedcorn maggots, cutworms, leafminers, cucumber beetles, mole crickets, wireworms, white-fringed beetle larvae, mites, and flea beetles. Leafhoppers and fleahoppers, grasshoppers, omnivorous leafrollers, plant bugs (including lygus bugs and stink bugs), and squash bugs may occasionally be seen on watermelons but are not economically damaging (Maynard 2003; Hopkins 2003; Webb 2010; Webb 1995; Webb, Kok-Yokomi, and Voegtlin 1994). 3



Caterpillars
Any caterpillars that feed on watermelon rinds are called rindworms, including beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), yellow-striped armyworm (Spodoptera ornithogalli), cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea), saltmarsh caterpillar (Estigmene acrea), and granulate cutworm (Feltia subterranea). Many rindworms also feed on the plant’s foliage and stems, but the greatest damage occurs from feeding on the rind, which directly reduces the fruit’s quality and marketability. Rindworms generally scar the surface of the fruit in irregular patterns, rather than boring into it. Larger caterpillars inflict greater damage, and management is generally easier when the caterpillars are smaller. Rindworms are often found on the underside or the least exposed parts of the watermelon (Webb 2003). 3

Cabbage looper (Fig. 1)
Trichoplusia ni (Hubner)

The adults are night-flying moths with brown, mottled forewings marked in the center with a small, silver figure eight. They lay their eggs (small, ridged, round, greenish-white) singly on both upper and lower leaf surfaces. The eggs hatch into larvae that are green with white stripes running the length of their bodies. Cabbage loopers move in a characteristic looping motion, alternately stretching forward and arching its back as it brings the back prolegs close to its front legs. After feeding for two to four weeks, the caterpillar, about 1.25 inches long when fully grown, spins a cocoon and pupates. The adults emerge 10 days to two weeks later. There can be several generations per year depending on climate. 1

Mature larva Pupa
Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Adult cabbage looper
Fig. 4

Beet armyworm
(Fig. 5)
Spodoptera exigua (Hubner)
 
The highly mobile adult moth has dark forewings with mottled lighter markings and hind wings thinly covered with whitish scales. Each female can lay over 600 eggs, generally in masses of about 100 on the undersides of leaves in the lower plant canopy. Very young caterpillars feed in groups and then disperse as they grow older (third instar). The dull green caterpillars have wavy, light-colored stripes lengthwise down the back and broader stripes on each side. After feeding from one to three weeks, they construct a cocoon and pupate, emerging as adults about one week later. Beet armyworm survives the winter in South Florida and can complete many generations a year there. From South Florida, adults migrate into North Florida and other parts of the Southeast. 1

Mature larva Adult beet armyworm
Fig. 6
Mature larva
Fig. 7 
Adult

Fall Armyworm
(Fig. 8)
Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)

The fall armyworm is native to the tropical regions of the western hemisphere from the United States to Argentina. It normally overwinters successfully in the United States only in southern Florida and southern Texas. The fall armyworm is a strong flier, and disperses long distances annually during the summer months. It is recorded from virtually all states east of the Rocky Mountains. However, as a regular and serious pest, its range tends to be mostly the southeastern states. 5

Larva of fall armyworm, note light-colored inverted "Y" on front of head Hatching first instar larvae of the fall armyworm
Fig. 9 Fig. 10
Typical adult male fall armyworm Typical adult female fall armyworm
Fig. 11 Fig. 12

Fig. 9. Larva of fall armyworm, note light-colored inverted "Y" on front of head
Fig. 10. Hatching first instar larvae of the fall armyworm
Fig. 11. Typical adult male fall armyworm
Fig. 12. Typical adult female fall armyworm

Yellowstriped Armyworm (Fig. 13)
Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenee)

Larvae damage plants principally by consumption of foliage. The small, gregarious larvae tend to skeletonize foliage but as the larvae grow and disperse they consume irregular patches of foliage or entire leaves. These species are very general feeders, reportedly damaging many crops. Among vegetable crops injured are asparagus, bean, beet, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrot, corn, cucumber, lettuce, onion, pea, potato, rhubarb, rutabaga, salsify, sweet potato, tomato, turnip, and watermelon. 6

Dorsal view of a larva of the yellowstriped armyworm Adult yellowstriped armyworm
Fig. 14 Fig. 15

Fig. 14. Dorsal view of a larva of the yellowstriped armyworm
Fig. 15. Adult yellowstriped armyworm

Tobacco budworm (Fig. 16)
Heliothis virescens

An adult tobacco budworm A closeup of an adult tobacco budworm
Fig. 17 Fig. 18

Fig. 17. An adult tobacco budworm
Fig. 18. A closeup of an adult tobacco budworm

Corn earworm (Fig.19)
Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)

Corn earworm has a wide host range; hence, it is also known as "tomato fruitworm," "sorghum headworm," "vetchworm," and "cotton bollworm." In addition to corn and tomato, perhaps its most favored vegetable hosts, corn earworm also attacks artichoke, asparagus, cabbage, cantaloupe, collard, cowpea, cucumber, eggplant, lettuce, lima bean, melon, okra, pea, pepper, potato, pumpkin, snap bean, spinach, squash, sweet potato, and watermelon. The number of generations is usually reported to be one in northern areas such as most of Canada, Minnesota, and western New York; two in northeastern states; two to three in Maryland; three in the central Great Plains; and northern California; four to five in Louisiana and southern California; and perhaps seven in southern Florida and southern Texas. The life cycle can be completed in about 30 days. 7

Pupa of the corn earworm Adult of the corn earworm
Fig. 20 Fig. 21

Fig. 20. Pupa of the corn earworm
Fig. 21. Adult of the corn earworm

Saltmarsh caterpillar (Fig. 22)
Estigmene acrea (Drury)

The saltmarsh caterpillar, Estigmene acrea (Drury), is a native insect found throughout the United States. Its distribution extends to Central America, and in Canada it has damaged crops in Ontario and Quebec. As a pest, it is most common in the southern United States, particularly the southwest. Larvae are defoliators. Young larvae feed gregariously and skeletonize foliage. Older larvae are solitary and eat large holes in leaf tissue. Older larvae may disperse long distances in search of food, sometimes moving in large numbers. Commonly this is associated with maturation of cotton or weeds in the autumn. Thus, these caterpillars tend to be damaging to fall-planted crops. 8

Eggs of the saltmarsh caterpillar Aggregation of young saltmarsh caterpillars
Fig. 22 Fig. 23
Young saltmarsh caterpillar Intermediate stage of the saltmarsh caterpillar
Fig. 24 Fig. 25
Adult female of the saltmarsh caterpillar Adult male of the saltmarsh caterpillar
Fig. 26 Fig. 27

Fig. 22. Eggs of the saltmarsh caterpillar
Fig. 23. Aggregation of young saltmarsh caterpillars
Fig. 24. Young saltmarsh caterpillar
Fig. 25. Intermediate stage of the saltmarsh caterpillar
Fig. 26. Adult female of the saltmarsh caterpillar
Fig. 27. Adult male of the saltmarsh caterpillar

Further Reading
Cabbage Looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner) from the University of Florida pdf 6 pages
Beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) from the University of Florida pdf 4 pages
Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) from the University of Florida's Featured Creatures website ext. link
Management of Fall Armyworm in Pastures and Hayfields from the Alabama Cooperative Extension pdf 4 pages
Yellowstriped armyworm Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenee) from the University of Florida pdf 4 pages
Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens from the University of Florida pdf 6 pages
Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) from the University of Florida pdf 6 pages
Saltmarsh caterpillar, Estigmene acrea (Drury) from the University of Florida pdf 4 pages



Granulate Cutworm (Fig. 28)
Feltia subterranea (Fabricius)

The granulate cutworm, Feltia subterranea (Fabricius) is the most commonly occurring cutworm in Florida, though it is rarely numerous enough to be a major pest. It is nocturnal through most of its life, and lacks distinctive features in the larval and adult stage, so it often is overlooked, and its activities and damage are not fully appreciated. 4

Adult of the granulate cutworm Adult of the granulate cutworm
Fig. 29 Fig. 30

Fig. 29. Adult of the granulate cutworm
Fig. 30. Adult of the granulate cutworm

Further Reading
Granulate cutworm, Feltia subterranea (Fabricius) from the University of Florida pdf 4 pages



Aphids

Aphids attacking watermelon include melon aphid (Aphis gossypii), green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), cowpea aphid (A.craccivora), spirea aphid (A. spiraecola), A. middletonii, and Uroleucon pseudambrosiae (Fig. 31) , among others. Aphids constitute the principal insect pest of watermelons in Florida, primarily because of their role in virus transmission. Melon aphid, green peach aphid, and cowpea aphid feed and reproduce on watermelons and other cucurbits. The other aphids listed are important virus vectors but do not colonize watermelons. Melon aphid is the most abundant aphid colonizing watermelons in Florida. 3

Aphids feed by piercing plant tissue with their needle-like mouthparts (stylets) and sucking out water and nutrients from the plant’s vascular system. Evidence of damage includes thickening, crumpling, and downward curling leaves caused by feeding damage and injury from toxins in the saliva injected into plant tissue during feeding. Heavy aphid attack may kill very young plants. Aphids also deposit large amounts of honeydew on the plant surface, which encourages the growth of sooty mold. Aphid populations can increase rapidly in Florida because of a short life cycle and reproduction by live birth (Stansly 2011). 3

Melon Aphid (Fig. 32)
Aphis gossypii Glover

Winged adult (black morph) melon aphid Winged adult (yellow morph) melon aphid
Fig. 33 Fig. 34
Wingless adult (yellow morph) melon aphid Melon aphids
Fig. 35 Fig. 36
Melon aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, tended by ants
Fig. 37

Fig. 33. Winged adult (black morph) melon aphid
Fig. 34. Winged adult (yellow morph) melon aphid
Fig. 35. Wingless adult (yellow morph) melon aphid
Fig. 36. Melon aphids
Fig. 37. Melon aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, tended by ants

Green Peach Aphid (Fig. 39)
Myzus persicae (Sulzer)

Female adult green peach aphids Colony of green peach aphid with severl life stages
Fig. 40 Fig. 41
Nymphs of the green peach aphid
Fig. 42

Fig. 40. Female adult green peach aphids
Fig. 41. Colony of green peach aphid with several life stages
Fig. 42. Nymphs of the green peach aphid

Cowpea Aphid (Fig. 43)
Aphis craccivora Koch

Cowpea aphid nymphs Infested bud with adults and nymphs
Fig. 44 Fig. 45

Fig. 44. Cowpea aphid nymphs
Fig. 45. Infested bud with adults and nymphs

Many of the natural enemies known to be effective against other aphids also attack melon aphid: ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrpidae), and braconid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Ants are commonly found associated with melon aphid but they are there to collect honeydew, and may even hinder predation by other insects. The wasp Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cress) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is especially effective, sometimes causing up to 99% parasitism. Fungi also are sometimes observed to affect melon aphid. 2

Further Reading
Melon Aphid or Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover from the University of Florida pdf 5 pages
Greeen Peach Aphid, Mysus persicae (Sulzer) from the University of Florida pdf 9 pages
Cowpea Aphid from Kansas State University pdf
Aphid Identification Guide for Cosmopolitan and Polyphagous Aphid Species ext. link



Melon Thrips (Fig. 46)
Thrips palmi Karny

Thrips palmi is by far the most serious thrips pest of watermelon. So far, in the United States, it has been reported only in Hawaii and South Florida where it attacks a number of vegetable crops. In watermelon, its feeding causes bronzing of foliage and destruction of vine tips, leading to limited canopy development. Tobacco thrips has been mainly reported as a pest of seedling watermelon plants in Central and North Florida. Feeding damage to developing leaves leads to scarring that is similar to abrasion by blowing sand. 1

Larvae of melon thrips, Thrips palmi Karny Bean leaf damage caused by the melon thrips, close-up of the bronze coloring effect
Fig. 47 Fig. 48
Typical thrips life cycle
Fig. 49

Fig. 47. Larvae of melon thrips, Thrips palmi Karny
Fig. 48. Bean leaf damage caused by the melon thrips, close-up of the bronze coloring effect
Fig. 49. Typical thrips life cycle

Further Reading
Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi Karny Guide from the University of Florida pdf
Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi Karny from the University of Florida pdf 7 pages



Whiteflies
Whiteflies found infesting Florida watermelons include silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii), sweet potato whitefly (B. tabaci), and greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). Whiteflies damage watermelon plants by removing plant sap, depleting the plant of needed nutrients. On some hosts, whiteflies cause severe damage by transmitting plant viruses. On watermelons, whiteflies have been reported to transmit squash leaf curl and lettuce infectious yellows, but these viruses do not presently occur in Florida. In Florida, the principal damage to watermelons inflicted by whiteflies is caused by feeding, which greatly reduces the plants’ vigor under heavy infestations (Webb 2003). 3

Silverfeaf Whitefly (Fig. 50)
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring

Its common name is the silverleaf whitefly, because of its unique ability to induced silverleaf disorder in squash.
Silverleaf whitefly can affect the crop directly by its feeding and by acting as a vector of viruses such as Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus, which have been reported in Florida in the last five years. Squash vein yellowing virus is responsible for a devastating disease of watermelon, known as watermelon vine decline. Plants often die shortly before or during harvest, and fruit show necrosis of the rind when cut open. 1

Newly laid eggs of Bemisia are pale yellow while those about to hatch are dark brown Red-eyed nymphal or "pupal" stage of Bemisia
Fig. 51 Fig. 52
Sooty mold developing on soybean leaves covered with Bemisia honeydew
Fig. 53

Fig. 51. Newly laid eggs of Bemisia are pale yellow while those about to hatch are dark brown
Fig. 52. Red-eyed nymphal or "pupal" stage of Bemisia
Fig. 53. Sooty mold developing on soybean leaves covered with Bemisia honeydew

Further Reading
Sweetpotato Whitefly B Biotype of Silverleaf Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring from the University of Florida pdf 9 pages



Leafminers
Leafminers (Liriomyza sativae and L. trifolii) are occasionally a major pest of watermelons in South Florida. Infestations are often more severe late in the season. Under heavy infestations, leaves may be nearly covered with mines, and defoliation late in the season can result in sunscald damage on the fruit. Adequately managing leafminer populations in watermelon seedlings is particularly important because the mines can serve as entry points for the fungus that causes gummy stem blight, an important watermelon disease in Florida (Hochmuth and Elmstrom 1992; Webb 2003). 3

Vegetable Leafminer (Fig. 54)
Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard)

Vegetable leafminer pupa Vegetable leafminer larva
Fig. 55 Fig. 56
Vegetable leafminer damage
Fig. 57

Fig. 55. Vegetable leafminer pupa
Fig. 56. Vegetable leafminer larva
Fig. 57. Vegetable leafminer damage

American Serpentine Leafminer (Fig. 58 )
Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)

Larva of the American serpentine leafminer Pupa of the American serpentine leafminer
Fig. 59 Fig. 60
Mine in tomato leaf caused by the American serpentine leafminer
Fig. 61

Fig. 59. Larva of the American serpentine leafminer
Fig. 60. Pupa of the American serpentine leafminer
Fig. 61. Mine in tomato leaf caused by the American serpentine leafminer

Further Reading
Vegetable Leafminer, Liriomyza sativae Blanchard from the University of Florida pdf 4 pages
Adult American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) from the University of Florida pdf 5 pages



Cucumber Beetles
In Florida, cucumber beetles include banded cucumber beetle (Diabrotica balteata), striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittata), and spotted cucumber beetle (D. undecimpunctata howardi). These beetles occasionally feed on watermelons in Florida to the degree that control measures become necessary. Banded cucumber beetle is more prevalent in South Florida, while spotted cucumber beetle is most common in North Florida. Striped cucumber beetle is seen only occasionally, primarily in western and northern Florida (Watson and Tissot 1942). 3

Banded Cucumber Beetle (Fig. 62)
Diabrotica balteata LeConte

The banded cucumber beetle is nearly omnivorous, and in addition to numerous plants being attacked, all parts of the plant are injured. Damage may occur to foliage, blossoms, silk, kernels, the plant crown, and roots. Larvae feed only on the roots. The most frequent forms of serious injury are defoliation by adults and root feeding on plant seedlings by larvae. Some of the most serious injury results from larval feeding on sweet potato roots. Banded cucumber beetle is known as a vector of virus diseases in beans, and larval feeding might increase the incidence and severity of Fusarium wilt. 8

Adult banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata LeConte Adult banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata LeConte
Fig. 63 Fig. 64

Fig. 63. Adult banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata LeConte
Fig. 64. Adult banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata LeConte

Further Reading
Banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata LeConte from the University of Florida ext.link



Mole Crickets (Fig. 65)
Scapteriscus spp.

Mole crickets (Scapteriscus spp.) occasionally present a problem to watermelon producers in Florida. They damage young seedlings by feeding on and tunneling in and around the roots often girdling the stems at their base. Their presence can be confirmed easily by the tunnels they make just below the soil surface. Mole crickets are active at night, particularly on warm nights when soil is moist, and they are rarely seen during the day (Schuster and Price 1992). 3

Tunnels formed by mole crickets burrowing near the soil surface.
Fig. 66

Fig. 66. Tunnels formed by mole crickets burrowing near the soil surface

Further Reading
Shortwinged Mole Cricket, Scapteriscus abbreviatus Scudder; Southern Mole Cricket, Scapteriscus borellii Giglio-Tos; and Tawny Mole Cricket, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder from the University of Florida pdf 7 pages



Wireworms
Similar to mole crickets, wireworms are more numerous in pasture and grass, so watermelons planted to land previously used for pasture is likely to experience greater wireworm problems. Chemical controls for wireworms must be applied before or at planting. 3



White-fringed Beetle (Fig. 67)
Naupactus (=Graphognathus) spp.

White-fringed beetle (Graphognathus spp.) is an occasional pest on watermelons and other crops in North Florida. It prefers cotton, peanut, okra, soybean, cowpea, sweet potato, beans, and peas, but most vegetable and field crops are attacked by this pest. Adults feed on leaves of host plants, cutting out notches along the leaf margins. They lay eggs in the soil at the plant base, and the grub stage can live up to two years in the soil. Currently no insecticides are effective against the grub, although several insecticides are available for adult white-fringed beetles. The presence of white-fringed beetle grubs is best determined by the crop history of the land. Watermelons should not be planted to land infested with white-fringed beetle grubs (Dixon 1988). 3

Lateral view of an adult female whitefringed beetle, Naupactus sp. Larva of a whitefringed beetle, Naupactus sp.
Fig. 68 Fig. 69

Fig. 68. Lateral view of an adult female whitefringed beetle, Naupactus spp.
Fig. 89. Larva of the whitefringed beetle, Naupactus spp.

Further Reading
Whitefringed beetle Naupactus (=Graphognathus) spp. from the University of Florida pdf



Spider Mites
Spider mites, the most common type of mite affecting crop plants, are occasionally pests on watermelons in Florida. They feed on the underside of leaves, primarily along the midribs and lateral veins. After piercing the leaf surface, they suck up the plant’s sap. Mite feeding causes watermelon plants to turn pale, then yellow, and eventually brown, and the plant appears dusty. Under severe infestations, foliage dries up and dies. When many mites are present, silken webs and white flakes of molted skin can be observed on the leaf surface. Mites move from one plant to another by parachuting through the air on their webs, using the wind. When their path is interrupted by an obstacle, they crawl down and seek out host plants. Infestations begin along edges of fields and close to high objects such as fences or trees. 3



Further Reading

Insect Management of Cucurbits (Cucumber, Squash, Cantaloupe and Watermelon) from the University of Florida pdf 17 pages
Florida Crop/Pest Management Profile: Watermelon from the University of Florida pdf 17 pages
Cucumber, Squash, Melon & Other Cucurbit Insect Pests from Clemson University Extension pdf 7 pages


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Bibliography

1 Webb, S.E. "Insect Management for Cucurbits (Cucumber, Squash, Cantaloupe , and Watermelon." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is ENY-460 (IG168), one of a series of the Entomology & Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Published Aug. 2001. Revised June 2013. Web. 18 Oct. 2014.
2 Capinera, John L. "Melon Aphid or Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is EENY-173 (IN330), one of the Featured Creatures series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Published: Nov. 2000. Reviewed June 2012. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.
3 Elwakil, Wael M. and Mossler, Mark A. "Florida Crop/Pest Management Profile: Watermelon." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is CIR1236, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Publication date Oc. 2000. Latest revision Aug.2013. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
4 Capinera, John L. "Granulate cutworm, Feltia subterranea (Fabricius)." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is EENY559, one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date May 2013. Web. 22 Oct. 2014.
5 Capinera, John L. "Fall armyworm, Podoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)." entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures. Publication Date July 1999. Latest revised: Nov. 2005. Reviewed: Feb. 2014. Web. 23 June 2016.
Capinera, John L. "Yellowstriped Armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenee) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is EENY-216, one of a series of Featured Creatures from the Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Published: July 2001. Revised: Nov. 2005. Reviewed: Feb. 2014. Web. 24 June 2016.
Capinera, John L. "Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa (=Heliothis) zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is EENY-145 (IN302), one of a series of Featured Creatures from the Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Published: July 2000. Revised: Aug. 2007. Reviewed: Feb.2014. Web. 24 June 2016.

Photographs

Fig. 1,2,3,4 Capinera, John L. Cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 18 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 5,6,7 Capinera, John L. Beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hubner). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 18 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 8,9,11,12 Capinera, John L. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 22 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 10 Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services - Division of Plant Industry. Web. 22 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 13,14,15 Capinera, John L. Yellostriped armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenee). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 22 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 16 Capinera, John L. Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 22 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 17,18 Sourakov, Andrei. Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Florida Museum of Natural History. Web. 22 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 19,20,21 Capinera, John L. Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 22 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 22,23,24,25,26,27 Capinera, John L. Saltmarsh caterpillar, Estigmene acrea (Drury). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 22 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 28,29 Capinera, John L. Granulate cutworm, Feltia subterranea (Fabricius). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 22 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 30 Buss, Lyle J. Granulate cutworm, Feltia subterranea (Fabricius). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 22 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 31 Cappaert, David. Wild lettuce aphid, Uroleucon pseudambrosia. 2008. bugwood.org. Michigan State University. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 32 Castner, J.L. Melon aphid Aphis gossypii Glover. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 18 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 33,34,35,36,37 Choate, P.M. Melon aphid Aphis gossypii Glover. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 38 Buss, Lyle J. Melon aphid Aphis gossypii Glover. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 39 Buss, Lyle J. Green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 40 Green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services - Division of Plant Industry. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 41 Gray, Ken. Green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Oregon State University. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 42 Castner, J.L. Green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 43 Cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. 2012. bugwood.org. Pest and Diseases Images Library. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 44,45 Cowpea Aphid. N.d. entomology.K-state.edu. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 46 Melon thrip Thrips palmi Karny Adults. 2007. bugwood.org. Florida Division of Plant Industry , Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 47 Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi Karny. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services - Division of Plant Industry. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 48 Capinera, John. Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi Karny. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 49 Medley, Jane C. Typical thrips life cycle. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 50 Bauer, Scott. Adult Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring or B. tabaci (Gennadius), B strain. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. USDA. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 51,52,53 Castner, James. Adult Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring or B. tabaci (Gennadius), B strain. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 54 Bess, Emilie. "Leaf miner fly collected from chard leaves in Howell Collective Garden." 2012. USDA APHIS PPQ. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). Web. 24 June 2016.
Fig. 55 Cranshaw, Whitney. Vegetable leafminer, Liriomyza sativae pupa. 2004. bugwood.org. Colorado State University. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 56 Cranshaw, Whitney. Vegetable leafminer, Liriomyza sativae larva. 2005. bugwood.org. Colorado State University. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 57 Castner, J.L. Vegetable leafminer, Liriomyza sativae damage. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 58,59,60 Buss, Lyle J. American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 61 Castner, J.L. American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 62 Bartman, Greg. Banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata LeConte. 2013. bugwood.org. USDA APHIS PPQ. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 63 Capinera, John L. Banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata LeConte. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 64 Banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata LeConte. 2002. bugwood.org. Clemson University, USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series.. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 65 Buss, Lyle J. Three mole cricket species: shortwinged mole cricket, Scapteriscus abbreviatus (left); tawny mole cricket, Scapteriscus vicinus (center); southern mole cricket, Scapteriscus borellii (right). N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 25 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 66 Sdlerz, W.C. Tunnels formed by mole crickets burrowing near the soil surface. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 25 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 67 Dorsal view of an adult female whitefringed beetle, Naupactus sp.. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 25 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 68 Castner, J.L. Lateral view of an adult female whitefringed beetle, Naupactus sp.. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 25 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 69 Dixon, Wayne N. Larva of a whitefringed beetle, Naupactus sp.. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services - Division of Plant Industry. Web. 25 Oct. 2014.

Published 18 Oct. 2014 LR. Last update 25 June 2016 LR
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