Grumichama - Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.
Grumichama
Fig. 1 magnifying glass
Eugenia brasiliensis (Braxilian cherry, Grumichama)

Leaves
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Eugenia brasiliensis in the San Paulo Botanical Garden
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Eugenia brasiliensis in the San Paulo Botanical Garden

Tree in full bloom
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Spent flowers
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Spent flowers

Cerisier du Brezil
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Fruit habit
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Fruit and seeds
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Seeds of Eugenia brasiliensis
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Seeds of Eugenia brasiliensis

Young grumichama bush
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Growth habit
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Trunk, bark
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Scientific name
Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.
Common names
English: Brazil-cherry español: grumichama French: cerisier du Brazil, jambosier du Brésil Portuguese: grumixama
Synonyms
Eugenia dombeyi (Spreng.) Skeels, Myrtus dombeyi Spreng., Stenocalyx brasiliensis O. Berg; Eugenia brasiliensis var. erythrocarpa Cambess; Eugenia brasiliensis var. leucocarpa Cambess.; Stenocalyx brasiliensis var. erythrocarpa (Cambess.) O.Berg; Stenocalyx brasiliensis var. leucocarpa (Cambess.) O.Berg; Eugenia bracteolaris Lam.; Eugenia filipes Baill.; Eugenia ubensis Cambess.; Myrtus grumixama Vell.; Stenocalyx ubensis (Cambess.) O.Berg 8
Relatives
Cattley guava Psidium cattleianum; guava Psidium guajava; blue grape Myrciaria vexator;  jaboticaba Myrciaria spp.; feijoa Feijoa sellowiana and other members of the genus Eugenia, which includes more than 30 species with edible fruits
Family
Myrtaceae
Origin
Sub tropical areas of Brazil
USDA hardiness zones
9b-10
Uses
Fruit; specimen shrub or for hedging
Height
15-20 ft (4.5-6 m)
Spread
10-12 ft (3-3.6 m)
Plant habit
Shrub or small tree; upright, compact growth habit 1
Growth rate
Can grow at a rate of about two to three feet a year under normal conditions 4
Trunk/bark/branches
Short-trunked;
Pruning requirement
Keep pruned to pickable 10-12 ft (3-3.6 m)
Leaves
Evergreen; leaves persist for 2 years; shiny dark leaves; leathery texture;  new growth is rosy-burgundy
Flowers
White; 100 white stamens, yellowish anthers; mid-March for the main flowering
Fruit
Looks like a Bing cherry; produces more fruit if the winter is a little chilly; borne on long stems in clusters; persistent white sepals
Season
Fruits several times a year; first crop is the largest; matures in April to May; one month from flowering 1
Light requirement
Sun or part shade
Soil tolerances
Prefers deep, fertile, sandy loam 5; alkaline soils will cause deficiences:iron, manganese, and magnesium 4
PH preference
5.5 - 6.5
Drought tolerance
Not tolerant
Aerosol salt tolerance
Not hightly salt tolerant; protect them from strong winds 4
Soil salt tolerance
Fair; chlorotic on beach sands
Cold tolerance
26° F (-3.33 °C)
Roots
Shallow root system; mulch to help retain moisture in the soil
Invasive potential *
None reported
Pest resistance
Somewhat susceptible to the Caribbean fruit fly
Known hazard
None

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Reading Material

Selected Eugenia Species from the University of Florida (Archived) pdf
Brazilian Cherry or Grumichama from the University of Florida Collier County Extension pdf
Grumichama from Julia Morton's book Fruits of Warm Climates
Grumichama from Twelve Fruits with Potential Value-Added and Culinary Uses from the University of Hawaii



Origin

Native and wild in coastal southern Brazil especially in the states of Parana and Santa Catarina. 5

Description
Has been grown in Florida since 1911.
The grumichama is a small, attractive tree that procuces a a delicious, cherrylike fruit. Indeed, many regard this species as the premier member of the fruit-rich Eugenia genus. Although the fruit is small and is somewhat suscesptible to attack by the Caribbean fruit frly, the flavor is outstanding. For south Florida residents who yearn for a fruit resembling the northern sweet cherry, the grumichama represents an excellent choice. 3

Flowers
Flowers develop on new growth. The flowers, borne singly in the leaf axils, are 1 in (2.5 cm) wide; have 4 green sepals and 4 white petals, and about 100 white stamens with pale-yellow anthers. 5

Fruit
The long-stalked fruit is oblate, 1/2 to 3/4 in (1.25-2 cm) wide; turns from green to bright-red and finally dark-purple to nearly black as it ripens, and bears the persistent, purple- or red-tinted sepals, to 1/2 in (1.25 cm) long, at its apex. The skin is thin, firm and exudes dark-red juice. The red or white pulp is juicy and tastes much like a true subacid or sweet cherry except for a touch of aromatic resin. There may be 1 more or less round, or 2 to 3 hemispherical, hard, light-tan or greenish-gray seeds to 1/2 in (1.25 cm) wide and half as
thick. 5 
Fruit are born singly on new growth. 3
 
Varieties
Variety leucocarpus Berg. in Brazil becomes a large tree to 65 ft (20 m) high and has fruits with white flesh. It is not as common as the red-fleshed type. 5

Harvesting
The tree is regarded as remarkable for the short period from flowering to fruiting. In Florida, it has been in full bloom in late April and loaded with fruits 30 days later. The crop ripens quickly over just a few days. 5

Propagation
Most grumichamas in the nursery trade are grown from seed and seedlings produce acceptable quality fruits, but generally take about two years before they reach a bearing size. Seed germinate quickly, about one month after planting, so if you propagate grumichamas from this year's crop or seed, you can have a good-sized shrub by the end of the year. There are some varieties that produce larger fruit and these can be propagated by cuttings or by grafting. 4
Trees can be grafted or cloned by air-layer. 2

Pruning
Little pruning is required. Keep to 10-12 ft for ease of harvest.

Fertilizing
Use of minor elements is desirable. Use nutritional spray on spring flush of growth.

Irrigation
The grumichama requires regular irrigaion when young. Once established, it is moderatlely drought tolerant. 3
 
Pests
It is considered a host for fruit flies. Birds remain the largest problem for growers of the fruit. Some Brazilian growers use netting to keep birds from the tree. Mylar tape, Christmas tinsel, and used CD's hung from the tree can help minimize bird damage.
South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) from the University of Florida pdf 6 pages
Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata from the University of florida pdf 16 pages

Diseases

There are no serious disease problems with grumichama when proper cultural practices are employed.

Food Uses
The fruit can be eaten fresh, or used for jams and jellies. 4

Medicinal Uses **
The bark and leaves contain 1.5% of essential oil. The leaf or bark infusion–1/3 oz (10 g) of plant material in 10 1/2 oz (300 g) water-is aromatic, astringent, diuretic and taken as a treatment for rheumatism at the rate of 2 to 4 cups daily, in Brazil. 5

Other uses
The wood is cross-grained, compact, hard, moderately heavy, not very elastic, brittle, of medium durability when exposed. Easy to work, it is used for lathe work, cabinet making, general carpentry, linings and boxes. 6

General
Father Tavares states that all the trees do not ripen their crops at the same time, some blooming later than others and thus extending the fruiting season from November to February (in Brazil). Three varieties are distinguished by him, one with dark red flesh, another with vermilion, and the third with white. All three are said to be equally good in quality. 7

Further Reading

The Grumichama: Quick to Grow, Lovely to Behold and a Juicy Treat to Boot! from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
The Grumichama by W. Popenoe from the Manual of Tropical and Sub Tropical Fruits
The Grumichama from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
Grumichama Botanical Art


List of Growers and Vendors


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Bibliography

1 Phillips, Richard L. "Selected Eugenia Species." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is HS41, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date Apr. 1994. Reviewed Nov. 2005. Archived. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
2 Love, Ken, Bowen, Richard and Fleming, Ken. "Twelve Fruits with Potential Value-Added and Culinary Uses." ctahr.hawaii.edu. University of Hawaii at Manoa. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. Web. 17 Jan. 2015.
3 Boning, Charles. Florida's Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. p. 104. 2006. Print.
4 Joyner, Gene. "The Grumichama: Quick to Grow, Lovely to Behold and a Juicy Treat to Boot!" rfcarchives.org.au. Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia. RFCI Inc., Tropical Fruit News Volume 22, Issue 6 July, 1989 and Tropical Fruit News, April 1993. Jan. 1989. Web. 17 Jan. 2015.
5 Morton, J. "Grumichama". hort.purdue.edu. Fruits of warm climates, p. 390-391. 1987. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
6 Lorenzi, H. Brazillian trees. Volume 1. Brazil. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA. 2002. Print.
7 Popenoe, Wilson. "The Grumichama". chestofbooks.com. Manual of Tropical and Subtropical fruits. 1920. Web. 17 Apr. 2016.
8 "Eugenia brasiliensis." tropical.theferns.info. Web. 15 Apr. 2016.

Photographs

Fig. 1,4 Love, Ken. Eugenia brasiliensis, Myrtaceae. N.d. hawaiifruit.net. Web. 19 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 2 Starr, Kim and Forest. Eugenia brasiliensis (Braxilian cherry, Grumichama). 2007. starrenvironmental.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Kula Ace Hardware and Nursery, Maui. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 3,11 Daderot. Eugenia brasiliensis in the San Paulo Botanical Garden. 2009. commons.wikimedia.org. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 5 Starr, Kim and Forest. Eugenia brasiliensis (Braxilian cherry, Grumichama) spent flowers. 2009. starrenvironmental.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Kaiku, Maui. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 6 Navez, B. Cerisier du Brezil. 2006. commons.wikimedia.org. Under GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2. Réunion island. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 7 Starr, Kim and Forest. Eugenia brasiliensis (Braxilian cherry, Grumichama) habit. 2003. starrenvironmental.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Montrose Crater Rd Kula, Maui. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
fig. 8 Jaitt, Oscar. Eugenia brasiliensis. N.d. fruitlovers.com. Web. 17 Apr. 2016.
Fig. 9 Calderon, Cesar. Grumichama, Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. 2006. bugwood.org. USDA APHIS PPQ. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 8 Starr, Kim and Forest. Eugenia brasiliensis (Braxilian cherry, Grumichama) habit. 1998. starrenvironmental.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui. Web. 19 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 11 Ralf.heete. Seeds of Eugenia brasiliensis. 2010. commons.wikimedia.org. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 12 Starr, Kim and Forest. Eugenia brasiliensis (Braxilian cherry, Grumichama) trunk and bark. 2009. starrenvironmental.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Haiku, Maui. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.


UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas
** Information provided is not intended to be used as a guide for treatment of medical conditions.

Published 12 Apr. 2014 LR. Updated 26 July 2014, 17 Apr. 2016 LR
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