|Grumichama - Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.|
Eugenia brasiliensis (Braxilian cherry, Grumichama)
Bing cherry on the left and grumichama on the right
Seeds of Eugenia brasiliensis
Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.
English: Brazil-cherry español: grumichama French: cerisier du Brazil, jambosier du Brésil Portuguese: grumixama
Eugenia dombeyi (Spreng.) Skeels, Myrtus dombeyi Spreng., Stenocalyx brasiliensis O. Berg; E. brasiliensis var. erythrocarpa Cambess; E. brasiliensis var. leucocarpa Cambess.; Stenocalyx brasiliensis var. erythrocarpa (Cambess.) O.Berg; Stenocalyx brasiliensis var. leucocarpa (Cambess.) O.Berg; E. bracteolaris Lam.; E. filipes Baill.; E. ubensis Cambess.; Myrtus grumixama Vell.; Stenocalyx ubensis (Cambess.) O.Berg 8
Cattley guava Psidium cattleianum; guava Psidium guajava; blue grape Myrciaria vexator; jaboticaba Myrciaria spp.; feijoa Feijoa sellowiana and other members of the genus Eugenia, which includes more than 30 species with edible fruits
Sub tropical areas of Brazil
USDA hardiness zones
Fruit; specimen shrub or for hedging
15-20 ft (4.5-6 m)
10-12 ft (3-3.6 m)
Shrub or small tree; upright, compact growth habit 1
Can grow at a rate of about two to three feet a year under normal conditions 4
Short-trunked; thin exfoliate bark 6
Keep pruned to 10-12 ft (3-3.6 m)
Evergreen; leaves persist for 2 years; shiny dark leaves; leathery texture; new growth is rosy-burgundy
White; 100 white stamens, yellowish anthers; mid-March for the main flowering
Looks like a Bing cherry; produces more fruit if the winter is a little chilly; borne on long stems in clusters; persistent white sepals
Fruits several times a year; first crop is the largest; matures in April to May; one month from flowering 1
Sun or part shade
Prefers deep, fertile, sandy loam 5; alkaline soils will cause deficiences:iron, manganese, and magnesium 4
5.5 - 6.5
Aerosol salt tolerance
Not hightly salt tolerant; protect them from strong winds 4
Soil salt tolerance
Fair; chlorotic on beach sands
26° F (-3.33 °C)
Shallow root system; mulch to help retain moisture in the soil
Invasive potential *
Somewhat susceptible to the Caribbean fruit fly
Selected Eugenia Species from the University of Florida (Archived) pdf
Brazilian Cherry or Grumichama from the University of Florida Collier County Extension pdf
Grumichama from Julia Morton's book Fruits of Warm Climates
Grumichama from Twelve Fruits with Potential Value-Added and Culinary Uses from the University of Hawaii
Native and wild in coastal southern Brazil especially in the states of Parana and Santa Catarina. 5
Has been grown in Florida since 1911.
The grumichama is a small, attractive tree that procuces a a delicious, cherrylike fruit. Indeed, many regard this species as the premier member of the fruit-rich Eugenia genus. Although the fruit is small and is somewhat suscesptible to attack by the Caribbean fruit frly, the flavor is outstanding. For south Florida residents who yearn for a fruit resembling the northern sweet cherry, the grumichama represents an excellent choice. 3
Fig. 19. Pruned as a standard
Fig. 20. Maintained as a bush to 6 feet for ease of harvesting
Fig. 21. In rows at Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden
Flowers develop on new growth. The flowers, borne singly in the leaf axils, are 1 in (2.5 cm) wide; have 4 green sepals and 4 white petals, and about 100 white stamens with pale-yellow anthers. 5
Fig. 7. Eugenia brasiliensis in the San Paulo Botanical Garden
Fig. 8. Grumichama bush in bloom
Fig. 9. Spent flowers
The long-stalked fruit is oblate, 1/2 to 3/4 in (1.25-2 cm) wide; turns from green to bright-red and finally dark-purple to nearly black as it ripens, and bears the persistent, purple- or red-tinted sepals, to 1/2 in (1.25 cm) long, at its apex. The skin is thin, firm and exudes dark-red juice. The red or white pulp is juicy and tastes much like a true subacid or sweet cherry except for a touch of aromatic resin. There may be 1 more or less round, or 2 to 3 hemispherical, hard, light-tan or greenish-gray seeds to 1/2 in (1.25 cm) wide and half as
Fruit are born singly on new growth. 3
Variety Euginia leucocarpus Berg. in Brazil becomes a large tree to 65 ft (20 m) high and has fruits with white flesh. It is not as common as the red-fleshed type. 5
The tree is regarded as remarkable for the short period from flowering to fruiting. In Florida, it has been in full bloom in late April and loaded with fruits 30 days later. The crop ripens quickly over just a few days. 5
Most grumichamas in the nursery trade are grown from seed and seedlings produce acceptable quality fruits, but generally take about two years before they reach a bearing size. Seed germinate quickly, about one month after planting, so if you propagate grumichamas from this year's crop or seed, you can have a good-sized shrub by the end of the year. There are some varieties that produce larger fruit and these can be propagated by cuttings or by grafting. 4
Trees can be grafted or cloned by air-layer. 2
Little pruning is required. Keep to 10-12 ft for ease of harvest.
Use of minor elements is desirable. Use nutritional spray on spring flush of growth.
The grumichama requires regular irrigaion when young. Once established, it is moderatlely drought tolerant. 3
It is considered a host for fruit flies. Birds remain the largest problem for growers of the fruit. Some Brazilian growers use netting to keep birds from the tree. Mylar tape, Christmas tinsel, and used CD's hung from the tree can help minimize bird damage.
South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) from the University of Florida pdf 6 pages
Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata from the University of florida pdf 16 pages
There are no serious disease problems with grumichama when proper cultural practices are employed.
The fruit can be eaten fresh, or used for jams and jellies. 4
Medicinal Uses **
The bark and leaves contain 1.5% of essential oil. The leaf or bark infusion–1/3 oz (10 g) of plant material in 10 1/2 oz (300 g) water-is aromatic, astringent, diuretic and taken as a treatment for rheumatism at the rate of 2 to 4 cups daily, in Brazil. 5
The wood is cross-grained, compact, hard, moderately heavy, not very elastic, brittle, of medium durability, medium resistance to rot when exposed. The wood is used for lathe work, cabinet making, general carpentry, linings and boxes. 6
Father Tavares states that all the trees do not ripen their crops at the same time, some blooming later than others and thus extending the fruiting season from November to February (in Brazil). Three varieties are distinguished by him, one with dark red flesh, another with vermilion, and the third with white. All three are said to be equally good in quality. 7
The Grumichama: Quick to Grow, Lovely to Behold and a Juicy Treat to Boot! from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
The Grumichama by W. Popenoe from the Manual of Tropical and Sub Tropical Fruits
The Grumichama from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
Eugenias, South American Berries from the Sub-tropical Fruit Club of Qld Inc
Grumichama Botanical Art
List of Growers and Vendors
1 Phillips, Richard L. "Selected Eugenia Species." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is HS41, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date Apr. 1994. Reviewed Nov. 2005. Archived. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
2 Love, Ken, Bowen, Richard and Fleming, Ken. "Twelve Fruits with Potential Value-Added and Culinary Uses." ctahr.hawaii.edu. University of Hawaii at Manoa. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. Web. 17 Jan. 2015.
3 Boning, Charles. Florida's Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc., 2006. p. 96-97.
4 Joyner, Gene. "The Grumichama: Quick to Grow, Lovely to Behold and a Juicy Treat to Boot!" rfcarchives.org.au. Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia. RFCI Inc., Tropical Fruit News Volume 22, Issue 6 July, 1989 and Tropical Fruit News, April 1993. Jan. 1989. Web. 17 Jan. 2015.
5 Morton, J. "Grumichama". hort.purdue.edu. Fruits of warm climates, p. 390-391. 1987. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
6 Lorenzi, Harri. Brazilian Trees, A Guide to the Identification and Cultivation of Brazilian Native Trees. 4th ed., Vol. 1, Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora ltda, Brazil, 2002. p. 274.
7 Popenoe, Wilson. "The Grumichama". chestofbooks.com. Manual of Tropical and Subtropical fruits. 1920. Web. 17 Apr. 2016.
8 "Eugenia brasiliensis." tropical.theferns.info. Web. 15 Apr. 2016.
Fig. 1,6 Love, Ken. Eugenia brasiliensis, Myrtaceae. N.d. hawaiifruit.net. Web. 19 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 2,13,14,16 Robitaille, Liette. "Grumichama Series." 2017. growables.or. JPG file.
Fig. 3 Starr, Kim and Forest. Eugenia brasiliensis (Braxilian cherry, Grumichama). 2007. starrenvironmental.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Kula Ace Hardware and Nursery, Maui. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 4,5,8,19 Robitaille, Liette. "Grumichama Series." 2015. growables.or. JPG file.
Fig. 7,18 Daderot. Eugenia brasiliensis in the San Paulo Botanical Garden. 2009. commons.wikimedia.org. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 9 Starr, Kim and Forest. Eugenia brasiliensis (Braxilian cherry, Grumichama) spent flowers. 2009. starrenvironmental.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Kaiku, Maui. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 10,20 Robitaille, Liette. "Grumichama Series." 2014. growables.or. JPG file.
Fig. 11 Starr, Kim and Forest. Eugenia brasiliensis (Braxilian cherry, Grumichama) habit. 2003. starrenvironmental.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Montrose Crater Rd Kula, Maui. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 12 Jaitt, Oscar. Eugenia brasiliensis. N.d. fruitlovers.com. Web. 17 Apr. 2016.
Fig. 15 Navez, B. Cerisier du Brezil. 2006. commons.wikimedia.org. Under GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2. Réunion island. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 17 Ralf.heete. Seeds of Eugenia brasiliensis. 2010. commons.wikimedia.org. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 21 Robitaille, Liette. "Grumichama Series." 2014. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden. growables.or. JPG file.
Fig. 22 Starr, Kim and Forest. Eugenia brasiliensis (Braxilian cherry, Grumichama) trunk and bark. 2009. starrenvironmental.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Haiku, Maui. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.
* UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas
** Information provided is not intended to be used as a guide for treatment of medical conditions.
Published 12 Apr. 2014 LR. Last update 30 June 2017 LR