Bitter Melon - Momordica charantia L.
Karela (Momordica charantia) , a promising traditional medicine for Diabetes, at urban vegetable market in Chhattisgarh, India
Fig. 1
M. charantia, Karela, at urban vegetable market in Chhattisgarh, India

Indian bitter melon fruit
Fig. 2
Indian bitter melon, pointed ridges

Bitter melon
Fig. 3
Chinese bitter melon, smooth ridges, Khổ qua, mướp đắng, Khóo-kue. 苦瓜。

Dashera Mela at Rawan Bhata village
Fig. 4
M. charantia. Dashera mela at Rawan Bhata village, India, karela fruit

Karela at flowering
Fig. 5
Karela at flowering

Momordica charantia, bitter melon vine
Fig. 6
M. charantia, bitter melon. Israel

Dashera Mela at Rawan Bhata village : Local vegetables available for sell. Taroi, Barbatti, Bhindi and Karela
Fig. 23
 Dashera Mela at Rawan Bhata village,  India. Local vegetables available. Taroi, Barbatti, Bhindi and Karela. M. charantia, Abelmoschus esculentus, Vigna unguiculata, luffa, raipur, mela

baskets of fruit at market
Fig. 24
M. charantia
Village market, Nagarnar, Bastar, India

Lycopersicon esculentum, Momordica dioica, Momordica charantia, Solanum melongena, Bastar, Chhattisgarh. Weekly market
Fig 25
M. dioica, M. charantia. At weekly market in India

Organic vegetables at a farmers' market in Argentina
Fig 26 
Organic vegetables at a farmers' market in Argentina

Seeds from bitter melon (M. charantia), Thai variety
Fig. 27
Seeds from bitter melon (M. charantia), Thai variety

Momordica charantia, balsam apple
Fig. 31
M. charantia, balsam apple

Bitter melon droop under the shed
Fig. 32
Bitter melon droop under the shed

Momordica charantia. Baramasi Karela in home garden
Fig. 33
M. charantia. Baramasi Karela in a home garden, India

Sunsets in Bulacan, Paddy fields of San Rafael, Bulacan Cattle and Momordica charantia
Fig. 34
Sunsets in Bulacan, Paddy fields of San Rafael, Bulacan Cattle and M. charantia in Barangay Pulo, San Rafael, Bulacan, Philippines

Noodle, Bitter Melon
Fig. 35
Noodle, bitter melon



Scientific name
Momordica charantia L.
Pronunciation
mo-MOR-dee-ka char-AN-tee-ah 7
Common names
English: African cucumber, balsam apple, balsam pear, bitter gourd, bitter cucumber, bitter melon, carilla gourd; French: concombre africain, margose, momordique, paroka; German: amerikanische bittergurke, balsambirne, bittergurke; India: karela; Indonesian: paria; Malay: peria; Spanish: balsamito, bálsamo, cundeamor; Swedish: bittergurka;Transcribed Chinese: ku gua; Transcribed Korean: yeoju 1,10
Synonyms
M. indica; M. elegans; M. chinensis; M. charantia subsp. abbreviata (Ser.) Greb.; M. charantia f. abbreviata (Ser.) W.J.de Wilde and Duyfjes; M. charantia var. abbreviata Ser.; M. charantia var. longirostrata Cogn.; var. M. charantiamuricata (Willd.) Chakrav; M. zeylanica Mill. 1,2,4
Relatives
Balsam apple (M. balsamina L.), Spiny gourd (M. cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng.)
Family
Cucurbitaceae
Origin
Africa, Asia-tropical, Australasia, Pacific 1
USDA hardiness zones
8-10 15
Uses

Leaves and young fruit as a vegetable; seeds as condiment; medicine 1,4
Life Form
Herbaceous, tendril- bearing vine
Physiology/habit
Multi stem 4; climbing, scrambling
Height
Slender climber reaching 10 ft (3 m) or more 5
Leaf
Simple; alternate toothed lobes (5-7) 4
Flower
Yellow and about 0.75 in. (2 cm) in diameter 4
Fruit
Oblong, 4-6 in. (10-15 cm) long 5
Crop cycle
50-70 days 4
Planting season
September - February
Seed germination temperature
Warm 60-95 °F (16-35 °C) 8
USDA Nutrient Content pods pdf
USDA Nutrient Content leafy tips pdf
Light requirement
Clear, bright skies
Photoperiod
Short day (<12 hours); neutral day (12-14 hours) 4
Soil
Medium to heavy; well drained; moderate fertility 4
PH preference

Optimal: 6-6.5; absolute: 4.5-8 4
Cold tolerance
Optimal: 72-86 °F (22-30 °C), absolute: 59-100 °F  (15-38 °C), killed at 37 °F (3 °C) 4
Plant spacing
36-60 in. (91-150 cm), rows 60-72 in. (150-183 cm) 9
Planting Soil depth
Optimal:  20-60 in. (50-150 cm); absolute:  8-20 in. (20-50 cm) 4
Invasive potential *
Invasive in south Florida; caution in central and north Florida
Pantropical (all-tropical areas): weed 4
Known hazard
Poisonous to mammals 1



Reading Material

Bitter Melon - an Asian Vegetable Emerging in Florida from the University of Florida pdf 7 pages
Momordica - Momordica spp. from the University of Florida pdf
Bitter Gourd, Balsam Pear: Pharmacy On A Fence from Eattheweeds.com
Cucurbit Production Chapter, Asian Cucurbits, in the Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida from the University of Florida pdf 385 pages



Description
It is a tropical and subtropical vegetable crop with long climbing vines which is widely cultivated in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean. The fresh fruiting vegetable is one of the most popular vegetables grown in China, India, Thailand, the Philippines, and Vietnam. 8
A herbaceous, pubescent vine up to 5 m long climbing by tendrils with leaves, alternating, simple, cordate and much lobed.
Bitter gourd is normally grown in hot, humid tropical areas with high rainfall at elevations up to 500 m. It grows wild in lowland rain forest and riverine forest, up to 1000 m in altitude.
Bitter gourd is an invader of recently cleared, plateau soils in areas of high rainfall. It is generally kept under control by trampling and light grazing by cattle. In ungrazed situations balsam pear may become dominant, smothering out less aggressive species. 4
Bitter gourd is an important vegetable crop and widely cultivated in the tropics. 10

Hairs on new Bitter gourd vine Typical shape of Bitter gourd leaves Momordica charantia. Bitter gourd growing with support
Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9

Fig. 7. Hairs on new bitter gourd vine, India
Fig. 8. Typical shape of bitter gourd leaves, India
Fig. 9. Karela growing with support, India

Flowers
Flowers are yellow and about 0.75 in. (2 cm) in diameter. Both male and female flowers grow on the same plant. 4
The vine flowers 30-35 days after planting. 3

Bitter melon’s male flower
Back part of bitter gourd flower Bitter melon’s female flower
Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12

Fig. 10. M. charantia. Bitter melon’s male flower
Fig. 11. M. charantia. Back part of male flower 
Fig. 12. M. charantia. Bitter melon’s female flower

Fruit
The fruit is something like a cucumber, more spindle shape or globose with a very wart-like surface. Green when young, bright orange when ripe, fleshy but dehiscent. A lumpy appearance and when fully ripe burst open. It has bright red seeds inside. 4
There are two types of bitter melon: Indian and Chinese. The Indian type has smaller fruit with dark green color and rough skin, and the Chinese type has larger fruit with light green color and smooth skin. 9

2 days old fruit with flower
3 days old fruit with flower 10 days old fruit with flower
Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15
habitus with flowers and fruits Developing fruit
Ripe fruit Beginning of bursting Burst fruit
Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20
Oozing of seed "Old" fruit
Fig. 21 Fig.  22

Fig. 13. Two days old fruit with flower, West Bengal, India
Fig. 14. Three days old fruit with flower, West Bengal, India
Fig. 15. Ten days old fruit with flower, West Bengal, India
Fig. 16. Habitus with flowers and fruits
Fig. 17. Developing fruit
Fig. 18. Ripe fruit
Fig. 19. Beginning of bursting
Fig. 20. Burst fruit
Fig. 21. Oozing of seed
Fig. 22. "Old" fruit

Varieties
Three members of the genus Momordica grow very well in Florida home gardens.
These are Chinese cucumber (M. cochinchinensis), balsam pear (M. charantia) Fig. 2, 3), and balsam apple (M. balsamina). All these cucurbits are fruits of annual running vines with near-round, deeply notched leaves. 5
The cultivars for Bittermelon (Chinese) are Hong Kong Green, Hybrid Bangkok Large, Japan Green Sprindle, Taiwan Large, and for Bittermelon (Indian) are Hybrid India Star, India Green Queen, India Green Long and Palee. 9

Harvesting
Fruits are ready for harvesting 50-70 days after planting and the plant continually bears fruit for the following 70-85 days. Yields of up to 10-30 t/ha can be obtained. 4

Pollination
Bitter melon is a cross-pollinating species and needs insects, such as bees, to carry out the pollinating process for setting fruit. 8
Bees are essential for cucurbit production. It has been estimated that eight or more visits per blossom are necessary for optimum fruit set and normal fruit development in watermelon. The morning hours are most critical for pollination, but bees will continue to forage into the afternoon. 11

Propagation
By seed with warmth at between 60-95 °F (16-35 °C) and moist soil. Germination is usually slow due to the thick and hard testae, and may fail or be very slow with lower temperatures and/or dry conditions. 8

Momordica charantia, bitter melon, dried seeds Seeds collected by W. A. Archer from Guyana seed collected by W. A. Archer from Guyana
Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30

Fig. 28. M. charantia, bitter melon, dried seeds
Fig. 39,30. M. charantia seeds from Guyana collected by W. A. Archer

Planting
Momordica  production in Florida gardens should be similar to production of cucumbers. Allow 3 to 4 months from seeding to harvest. Provide ample space or a trellis for the vines that sometimes reach 10 feet or more in length. 5
Commercially Momordica vines are trellised (Fig. 31), primarily to maximize space and sufficient sunlight, minimize bud drop and fruit rot caused by over shading and exposure to soil moisture and pathogens and to promote straight fruit. These crops are started from seed and grown as transplants prior to being set in the field 9

Irrigation
Asian cucurbits can be grown with drip, overhead or subsurface irrigation. 9

Diseases/Pests
The most common diseases of bitter melon (M. charantia) in South Florida include:
downy mildew, powdery mildew, Fusarium wilt, target leaf spot, and root-knot caused by nematodes. 14

Diseases of Bitter Melon in South Florida from the University of Florida pdf
2017 Florida Plant Disease Management Guide: Cucumber from the University of Florida pdf 4 pages
Cucumber Anthracnose in Florida from the University of Florida pdf 5 pages
Insect Management for Cucurbits (Cucumber, Squash, Cantaloupe, and Watermelon) from the University of Florida pdf 18 pages
Nematode Management in Cucurbits (Cucumber, Melons, Squash) from the University of Florida pdf 11 pages

Food Uses
The fruit flesh is often used in Chinese cuisine with sliced garlic, chicken eggs, pork, or “douchi,” a type of fermented and salted black soybean. In Indian dishes, the sliced fruit is marinated in a solution of salt and tamarind before being pan-fried with spices. 8
The immature fruit is boiled as a vegetable, used in a similar manner as the egg shaped M. balsamina (balsam apple). 5
To remove most of its bitterness the whole small fruits or fruit slices are soaked in salt water before or after parboiled.
They are cooked in many dishes, and can be pickled. Fruits are also stuffed. Leaves make a good spinach dish. Fruits, young shoots and flowers are used as flavouring. 4
Brighter green and younger are better. Older, yellowish ones are tough with fibrous cores. When young, the whole gourd is eaten, including pith and seeds. In older ones, scrape out seeds. Eaten raw, thinly sliced in salads or added to rich spicy curries to mellow bitterness.  Stir-fried w/spices and lime juice, deep-fried into crunchy chips. Bengalis - soup, punjabis slit and stuff with spicy mashed potatoes or ground almonds and pan-fry. Pickled w/garlic and tamarind. Small, firm, shiny. Avoid overripe, soft yellowish (Fig. 37).

Bitter gourd cleaned and sliced for cooking From Bladhom: More jagged and narrower than Chinese variety of bitter melon Bitter melon cut in half
Fig. 36 Fig. 37
Fig. 38
Bitter melon peeled Cooking in Bulacan Ginisang Patola Punjabi-style stuffed bitter gourds
Fig. 39
Fig. 40 Fig. 41
Gohyah Tea Bitter gourd sliced partially dried Bitter melon man drink in a can
Fig. 42  Fig. 43  Fig. 44 

Fig. 36. Bitter gourd cleaned and sliced for cooking
Fig. 37. From Bladhom: More jagged and narrower than Chinese variety of bitter melon. 
Fig. 38. Cut in half. Next, clean out seed, slice thin and salt. Cure 24-48 hours, rinse and drain VERY well.
Fig. 39. Bitter melon peeled
Fig. 40. M. charantia. Ampalaya fruits, flowers and seeds Tuna Mechado Cooking in Bulacan Ginisang Patola, Philippines
Fig. 41. Punjabi-style stuffed bitter gourds cooked in tomato-based masala, which are typically eaten in summer
Fig. 42. Dried Gohyah slices prepared for use as tea
Fig. 43. Sliced pieces of partially dried bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) kept for sun drying. Dried ones are used for making a South Indian crispy dish called Kondattam/Vettal by frying in oil and is usually served along with rice and curry or it is used in curries or many other dishes, India
Fig. 44. A drink made from bitter melon, with bitter melon man the superhero on it

Medicinal Uses **
Karela (M. charantia), a promising traditional medicine for diabetes, at urban vegetable market in Chhattisgarh, India. (Fig. 1)
Bitter gourd fruit contain bioactive components with many important medicinal properties (Horax et al. 2005). 10

General
M. charantia. By visiting village Haat or market one can get much information about local life style, culture and food habits. In Indian State Chhattisgarh most of the village Haat or markets are weekly. These markets fulfill the requirement of villagers. In rural areas the markets are having local materials. The markets of tribal regions are unique in all sense. One can see the rare medicinal herbs, the sell of medicinal insects and traditional ornaments. (Fig. 24)

Distribution map
Fig. 45

Fig. 45. Florida Distribution Map of M. charantia

Further Reading
Bitter Gourd: Botany, Horticulture, Breeding from Horticultural Reviews pdf 41 pages
Suggested Cultural Practices for Bitter Gourd from the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center pdf 14 pages
Weed Management in Cucurbit Crops (Muskmelon, Cucumber, Squash, and Watermelon) from the University of Florida pdf 5 pages
Balsam apple from Sturtevant’s Edible Plants Of The World book, 1919
Momordica charantia from the Edible Leaves Of The Tropics publication, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1979
Bitter Melon Botanical Art


List of Growers and Vendors


Bibliography

1 "Taxon: Momordica charantia L." No. 24520. U.S., National Plant Germplasm System, www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/. Accessed 30 Nov. 2017.
"Momordica charantia L. synonyms." The Plant List (2013), Version 1.1., www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/search?q=Momordica+charantia. Accessed 18 July 2017.
3 Nath, Prem, “Bird bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)” The Vegetable Sector in Thailand, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1999, www.fao.org/docrep/004/ac145e/AC145E09.htm. Accessed 1 July 2017.
4 Labrada, Ricardo. “Momordica charantia L.” Ecocrop, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2014, ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropView?id=7795. Accessed 1 July 2017.
Stephens, James M. "Momordica, Momordica spp." This document is HS627, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date May 1994. Revised September 2015, edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mv094. Accessed 1 July 2017.
6 "Cucurbitaceae Momordica charantia L." International Plant Names Index, 20 Jan. 2004, www.ipni.org/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=132255-3&back_page=&show_history=true. Accessed 1 July 2017.
7 Deane, Green. "Bitter Gourd, Balsam Pear: Pharmacy On A Fence." Eat The Weeds And Other Things Too, www.eattheweeds.com/bitter-gourd-balsam-pear-pharmacy-on-a-fence/. Accessed 1 July 2017.
8 Liu, Guodong. "Bitter Melon—an Asian Vegetable Emerging in Florida." This document is HS1271, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date December 2015, edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1271. Accessed 17 July 2017.
9 Freeman, Josh H. "Chapter 7. Cucurbit Production, Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida, 2017–2018 edition." Twenty-first edition of Vegetable Production Handbook for Florida, University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/cv/cv29200.pdf. Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.
10 Behera T. K. "Bitter Gourd: Botany, Horticulture, Breeding. 2010." Horticultural Reviews, Volume 37. pp 124 -129, 131-132. handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/42264. Accessed 30 Nov. 2017.
11 Webb, S. E. "Insect Management for Cucurbits (Cucumber, Squash, Cantaloupe, and Watermelon)." This document is ENY-460, one of a series of the Department of Entomology and Nematology, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date August 2001. Revised September 2007, May 2010, June 2013, and February 2017, edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in168. Accessed 12 Jan.2018.
13 Roberts, Pamela D. "2017 Florida Plant Disease Management Guide: Cucumber." This document is PDMG-V3-38, one of a series of the Department of Plant Pathology, 2017 Florida Plant Disease Management Guide,  UF/IFAS Extension. Reviewed June 2009. Originally published as 2009 Florida Plant Disease Management Guide: Cucumber by Pamela Roberts and Tom Kucharek (http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00006730/00001), edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pg046. Accessed 20 July 2017.
14 Zhang, Shouan. "Diseases of Bitter Melon in South Florida." This document is PP300, one of a series of the Plant Pathology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date October 2012, Reviewed November 2015, edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pp300. Accessed 17 July 2017.
15 "Momordica charantia." UF/IFASAssessment of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas,
assessment.ifas.ufl.edu/site/assets/files/4066/momordica_charantia_wra2016.pdf. Accessed 26 Jan. 2018.

Photographs

Fig. 1 Oudhia, Pankaj. Karela (Momordica charantia), a promising traditional medicine for Diabetes, at urban vegetable market in Chhattisgarh, India. 9 May 2005, ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=pdb&PdbID=42989. Accessed 1 July 2017.
Fig. 2 Liu, Guodong. Indian bitter melon fruit. edis.ifas.ufl.edu/LyraEDISServlet?command=getImageDetail&image_soid=FIGURE%208&document_soid=HS1271&document_version=1. Accessed 29 Nov. 2107.
Fig. 3 Stander J. Bitter melon, Khổ qua, mướp đắng, Khóo-kue. 苦瓜。, (Momordica charantia). 1 Sep. 2006, Public Domain, commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File%3ABittermelonfruit.jpg. Accessed 30 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 4 Oudhia, Pankaj. Momordica charantia, Raipur, Mela. Dashera Mela at Rawan Bhata village: Karela fruit available for sell. 14 May 2005, ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=pdb&PdbID=53360. Accessed 1 July 2017.
Fig. 5 Oudhia, Pankaj. Karela at flowering. 9 May 2005, ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=pdb&PdbID=57496. Accessed 1 July 2017.
Fig. 6 Finkle, Eran. Momordica charantia, Bitter Melon. Dec. 2007, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File%3AMomordica_charantia_-_D7-12-5054.JPG. Accessed 20 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 7 Oudhia, Pankaj. Hairs on new Karela vine. 9 May 2005, ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=pdb&PdbID=57497. Accessed 1 July 2017.
Fig. 8 Oudhia, Pankaj. Typical shape of bitter gourd leaves. 9 May 2005, ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=pdb&PdbID=57504. Accessed 1 July 2017.
Fig. 9 Oudhia, Pankaj. Karela growing with support. 9 May 2005, ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=pdb&PdbID=57502. Accessed 1 July 2017.
Fig. 10 Liu, Guodong. Bitter melon’s male flower. edis.ifas.ufl.edu/LyraEDISServlet?command=getImageDetail&image_soid=FIGURE%205&document_soid=HS1271&document_version=1. Accessed 29 Nov. 2107.
Fig. 11 Oudhia, Dr. Pankaj. Back part of Karela flower. 27 Oct. 2005, ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=pdb&PdbID=57510. Accessed 1 July 2017
Fig. 12 Liu, Guodong. Bitter melon’s female flower. edis.ifas.ufl.edu/LyraEDISServlet?command=getImageDetail&image_soid=FIGURE%206&document_soid=HS1271&document_version=1. Accessed 29 Nov. 2107.
Fig. 13 Joydeep. 2 days old fruit with flower. 24 Apr. 2014, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File%3AMomordica_charantia_24042014_(2).jpg. Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 14 Joydeep. 3 days old fruit with flower. 25 Apr. 2014, (CC BY-SA 3.0),  commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File%3AMomordica_charantia_25042014.jpg Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 15 Joydeep. 10 days old fruit with flower. 1 May  2014, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File%3AMomordica_charantia_01052014.jpg. Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 16 Zell, H. Momordica charantia, Cucurbitaceae, Bitter Melon, Bitter Gourd, habitus with flowers and fruits. 8 July 2009, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10702040. Accessed 29 Nov.2017.
Fig. 17 Zell, H. Developping fruit. 8 July 2009, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10702063. Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 18 Zell, H. Ripe fruit. 16 July 2009, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10702097. Accessed 29 Nov.2017.
Fig. 19 Zell, H. Beginning of bursting. 16 July 2009, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10702137. Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 20 Zell, H. Bursted fruit. 16 July 2009, CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10702169. Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 21 Zell, H. Oozing of seeds. 29 July 2009, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10702200. Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 22 Zell, H. "Old" fruit. 29 July 2009, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10702242. Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 23 Oudhia, Pankaj. Momordica charantia, Abelmoschus esculentus, Vigna unguiculata, Luffa, Raipur, Mela. 13 Oct. 2005, ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=pdb&PdbID=53359. Accessed 1 July 2017.
Fig. 24 Oudhia, Pankaj. Lycopersicon esculentum, Bastar, Momordica charantia. 14 May 2005, ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=pdb&PdbID=42809. Accessed 1 July 2017.
Fig. 25 Oudhia, Pankaj. Lycopersicon esculentum, Momordica dioica, Momordica charantia, Solanum melongena, Bastar, Chhattisgarh. Weekly village market in Bastar village on Saturday. 6 Aug. 2006, ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=pdb&PdbID=99105. Accessed 24 Dec.2017.
Fig. 26 Piamonte, René. Organic vegetables at a farmers' market in Argentina. IFOAM Training Manual on Seed Saving, 28 May 2006, Public Domain, commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pepperseggplants.jpg. Accessed 18 Jan. 2018.
Fig. 27 Seeds from bitter melon (Momordica charantia), Thai variety. 8 Nov. 2009, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Momordica-charantia-seeds.jpg. Accessed 20 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 28 Finkle, Eran. Momordica charantia, Bitter Melon, Dried seeds. 1 Sep. 2017, (CC BY-SA 3.0),  commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Momordica_charantia_-_D7-09-2953.JPG. Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 29 Ritchie, Carole. Momordica charantia L. seeds. 29 Jan. 2007, United States National Plant Germplasm system, npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/ImageDisplay.aspx?type=taxonomy&id=8922. Accessed 1 Dec. 2017.
Fig. 30 Ritchie, Carole. Momordica charantia L. seed. 3 Mar. 2006, United States National Plant Germplasm system, npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/ImageDisplay.aspx?type=taxonomy&id=3739. Accessed 1 Dec. 2017.
Fig. 31 Calderon, Cesar. balsamapple (Momordica charantia) L., Image No: 2186017, bugwood.org, USDA APHIS PPQ, (CC BY-SA 3.0). invasive.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=2186017. Accessed 1 Dec. 2017.
Fig. 32 Kon072. Bitter melon droop under the shed. Nov. 28 2014, (CC0 1.0), pixabay.com/en/bitter-melon-droop-under-the-shed-2139030/. Accessed 13 Jan.2018.
Fig. 33 Oudhia, Pankaj. Baramasi Karela in home garden in Piperchhedi village of JatMai Garh region. 8 Feb. 2007, ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=pdb&PdbID=101592. Accessed 1 July 2017.
Fig. 34 Judgefloro. Sunsets in Bulacan, Paddy fields of San Rafael, Bulacan Cattle and Momordica charantia in Barangay Pulo, San Rafael. 26 Dec. 2015, Public Domain, commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:0431jfPulo_Fields_Rice_Landscapes_San_Rafael_Bulacanfvf_06.JPG. Accessed 17 Jan. 2018.
Fig. 35 PublicDomainPictures. Noodle, Bitter Melon. 20 Dec. 2012, Public Domain, pixabay.com/en/food-white-back-noodle-bitter-melon-71410/. Accessed 13 Jan.2018.
Fig. 36 Nakano, Hajime. Bitter gourd cleaned and sliced for cooking. 4 Oct. 2008, (CC BY-2.0.), commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File%3AMomordica_charantia_(jetalone).jpg. Accessed 1 Dec. 2017.
Fig. 37 Seaton, Leslie. Karela, bitter melon or balsam pear. 6 Feb. 2010, (CC BY-2.0.), commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bittter_Melon_(5193855749).jpg. Accessed 20 Jan. 2018.
Fig. 38 Vegan Feast Catering. Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) cut in half. 21 Feb. 2010, (CC BY-2.0.), commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Momordica_charantia_(Bitter_Melon)_cut_in_half.jpg. Accessed 20 Jan. 2018
Fig. 39 Handa, Sandeep. Bitter melon peeled. 19 Sep. 2017, (CC0 1.0), pixabay.com/en/bitter-melon-bitter-gourd-peeled-2776318/. Accessed 13 Jan.2018.
Fig. 40 Judgefloro. Patola (Philippines) Momordica charantia (Philippines) Ampalaya fruits, flowers and seeds Tuna Mechado Cooking in Bulacan Ginisang Patola. 10 Aug. 2017, Public Domain, commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:09703jfCuisine_Foods_Fruits_Philippines_Baliuag_Bulacanfvf_08.jpg. Accessed 17 Jan. 2018.
Fig. 41 SwingingUvula. Punjabi-style stuffed bitter gourds cooked in tomato-based masala, which are typically eaten in summer. 17 June 2014, (CC BY-SA 4.0), commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Masala_karele.JPG. Accessed 19 Jan. 2018.
Fig. 42 Clarknova assumed (based on copyright claims). Dried Gohyah slices prepared for use as tea. 20 Dec. 2005, Public Domain, commons.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=469694. Accessed 30 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 43 Rijin, Bitter gourd sliced partially dried. 14 Jan. 2014, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bitter_gourd_sliced_partially_dried_02.jpg. Accessed 18 Jan. 2018.
Fig. 44 Lozupone, Alex. A soft drink made from bitter melon. 6 Feb. 2005, (CC BY-SA 3.0), en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Momordica_charantia#/media/File:Bittermelonman.jpg. Accessed 29 Nov. 2107.
Fig. 45 Wunderlin, R. P., B. F. Hansen, A. R. Franck, and F. B. Essig. "Momordica charantia." 2018. Atlas of Florida Plants (florida.plantatlas.usf.edu).[S. M. Landry and K. N. Campbell (application development), USF Water Institute.] Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida, Tampa. Accessed 14 Jan.2018.

*   UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas
** The information provided above is not intended to be used as a guide for treatment of medical conditions using plants.

Published 28 Jan. 2018 KJ
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