Jaboticaba - Myrciaria cauliflora Berg.
Jaboticaba fruit
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Leaves of the Plinia cauliflora.
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Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba, Brazilian grape tree). Leaves. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii
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Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba, Brazilian grape tree). Leaves. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii

Inflorescense
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Inflorescense

Flor de jaboticaba
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Flor de jaboticaba

Flowers and fruit
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Happy Quinta-flower! Jabuticaba - Myrciaria cauliflora. Fruit native to Brazil, bears stem berries, purple in color and absolutely delicious!
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Happy Quinta-flower! Jabuticaba - Myrciaria cauliflora. Fruit native to Brazil, bears stem berries, purple in color and absolutely delicious!

Unripe fruit
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Immature fruit

Ripe fruit
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aboticaba. Esta semana madurou. Agora é distribuir pra familia e amigos.
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Jaboticaba. Esta semana madurou. Agora é distribuir pra familia e amigos.

Fruiting plant, growing in a home orchard
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Fruiting plant, growing in a home orchard

Jaboticaba fruiting
Fig. 15

Two low-branching and trimmed jaboticaba trees growing on the campus of Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School, Honduras
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Two low-branching and trimmed jaboticaba trees growing on the campus of Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School, Honduras

Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba, Brazilian grape tree) Trunk Makawao, Maui, Hawaii.
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Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba, Brazilian grape tree) Trunk Makawao, Maui, Hawaii.

Jaboticabas
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Scientific name
Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.) O.Berg.
Pronunciation
mer-see-AIR-ree-uh kawl-liff-FLOR-ruh 7
Common names
Jaboticaba, Brazil grape tree, (English); sabará jaboticaba, jabuticaba sabará, jabuticaba de Campinas, guapuru, guaperu, hivapuru, and ybapuru (Brazil) 1
Synonyms
Plinia cauliflora (Mart.) Kausel ; Eugenia cauliflora (Mart.); E. jaboticaba (Vell.) Kiaersk.; Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.) Baill.; M. jaboticaba (Vell.) O.Berg ; Myrtus cauliflora Mart.; M. jaboticaba Vell. 8
Relatives
Blue grape, Myrciaria vexator; cattley guava, Psidium cattleianum; cherry of the Rio Grande, Eugenia aggregata; feijoa, Feijoa sellowina; grumichama, E. braziliensis; guava, P. guajava; pitomba, E. luschnanthiana and Guava spp. 6
Family
Myrtaceae
Origin
Southern Brazil
USDA hardiness zones
9b-11
Uses
Edible fruit; small tree; shrub; hedge; bonsai 5
Height
15-30 ft (4.572-0.144 m)
Spread
12-18 ft  (3.657-5.486 m)
Crown
Dense, rounded; fine texture
Plant habit
Shrub or small, bushy tree
Growth rate
Slow
Longevity
The tree may live for more than 150 years 6 
Trunk/bark/branches
Branches start low to the ground and slant outward; thin, beige to reddish bark flakes off much like that of the guava 1
Pruning requirement
Not required
Leaves
Evergreen; small; opposite, lanceolate; 1-4 in. (2.54-10.16 cm) long and 1/2-3/4 in. (1.27-1.9 cm) wide; glossy dark green; leathery texture 1
Flower
White in profusion; insignificant; flowers intermittently year-round 5
Fruit
Grape-like berry; round; 1/2-1 in. (1.27-2.54 cm); fleshy; black 7
Season
Heaviest bearing in late March/April; mature tree can produce 100 pds over the season
Light requirement
Medium; high
Soil tolerances
Adaptable to a wide range of soils; acidic; slightly alkaline; sand; loam; clay
PH preference
5.5-6.5
Drought tolerance
Medium
Soil salt tolerance
Low
Cold tolerance
Minimum 27°F (-2.78°C) 5
Plant spacing
15-20 ft (4.572-6.09 m)
Roots
Compact, fibrous root system; transplants well 10
Invasive potential *
Not a problem species (un-documented)
Pest resistance
Susceptible to aphids; scales; nematodes; spider mites 5
Known hazard
Fruit skins contain tannins and should not be consumed in quantity 6

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Reading Material

Myrciaria cauliflora from the University of Florida, Lee County Extension pdf 4 pages
The Jaboticaba from the University of Florida (Archived) pdf
Jaboticaba from Julia Morton's book Fruits of Warm Climates
Jaboticaba from the University of Hawaii at Manoa CTAHR pdf 6 pages
Jaboticaba from the California Rare Fruit Growers
The Jaboticaba from W. Popenoe's book Manual of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits



Generally identified as Myrciaria cauliflora Berg. (syn. Eugenia cauliflora DC.), the names jaboticaba, jabuticaba or yabuticaba (for the fruit; jaboticabeira for the tree) actually embrace 4 species of very similar trees and fruits: M. cauliflora, sabará jaboticaba, also known as jabuticaba sabará, jabuticaba de Campinas, guapuru, guaperu, hivapuru, or ybapuru; M. jaboticaba Berg., great jaboticaba, also known as jaboticaba de Sao Paulo, jaboticaba do mato, jaboticaba batuba, jaboticaba grauda; M. tenella Berg., Jaboticaba macia, also known as guayabo colorado, cambui preto, murta do campo, camboinzinho; M. trunciflora Berg., long-stemmed jaboticaba, also called jaboticaba de Cabinho, or jaboticaba do Pará. 9
 
Origin

Jaboticaba is native to Brazil to the hillside regions around Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. 9

Description
The names jaboticaba, jabbuticaba, and yabuticaba are often used to describe four similar species of Myrciaria. 1
The jaboticaba ranks as one of the most desirable species for dooryard planting, surpassing citrus in many respects. It is a sensational landscape spedimen, with peeling bark (Fig. 29) and a dense crown of lacy foliage. The fruit deserves equal praise. Aficionados consider the flafor to be the finest of any berry-type fruit. The tree bears profusely and repeatedly. The jaboticaba is highly recommended for planting in south florida and protected areas of central Florida. 6
Its habit of producing the fruit directly upon the trunk and larger limbs, together with the unusual beauty of its symmetrical and umbrageous head of pale green foliage, makes this a peculiarly striking tree. 12

Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba, Brazilian grape tree) Habit. Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii.I loved the trunk of this Myrciaria cauliflora, Brazilian Grape Tree, at Lyon Arboretum on Oahu.Myrciaria Cauliflora (Jaboticaba Brazilian Grape Tree)Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba, Brazilian grape tree). Bark at Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii.
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Fig. 26 . Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba, Brazilian grape tree) Habit. Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii.
Fig. 28. Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba, Brazilian grape tree). Bark at Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii.
Fig. 29. I loved the trunk of this Myrciaria cauliflora, Brazilian Grape Tree, at Lyon Arboretum on Oahu.

Leaves
The tips of emerging floliage often have an attractive pink or reddish tint. (Fig. 3 ) 6 
The evergreen, opposite leaves, on very short, downy petioles, are lanceolate or elliptic, rounded at the base, sharply or bluntly pointed at the apex; 1 to 4 in (2.5-10 cm) long, 1/2 to 3/4 in (1.25-2 cm) in width; leathery, dark-green, and glossy. 9

Flowers
Its flowers are small, staminous, white or near-white and cauliflorous, meaning they grow directly on the bark or underbark along the trunk, limbs and branches. This occurs several times a year primarily in late winter and spring. 5
Rain and overhead irrigation are harmful to fruit set during the first 3 days after bloom. Two days after they appear, the flowers begin to desiccate. From this point forward, fruit quality depends on the tree receiving a steady supply of water. 6 

Baby jabuticabasFlowersTree in full bloom
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Fruit
Jaboticaba fruit is grape-like in appearance and texture but with a thicker, tougher skin. Most California fruit is dark purple to almost black in color. Averages size is one inch in diameter but can run from 3/4 to 1-1/2 inches, depending on species and variety. The gelatinous whitish pulp contains from one to four small seeds and has a pleasant, subacid flavor markedly similar to certain muscadine grapes. The skin has a slight resinous flavor that is not objectionable. Fruit may be produced singly or in clusters from the ground up all over the trunk and main branches, and the plant may fruit up to five times per year. 1
Jaboticaba may take as many as eight years to bear fruit. 5
Fruits are not produced on new growth as is common on many other tropical fruit trees. Fruit development is very rapid, usually 20 to 25 days from flower to full maturity. 5

Jaboticabas, ainda verdes. Mais alguns dias e estarão deliciosas.JabuticabasJaboticaba
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Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) fruits, Brazilian Grape Tree, Guaperu, Guapuru, Hivapuru, Ybapuru, mother´s home, Sao paulo. Brazilian nativeJabotecaba, Myrciaria cauliflora. Myrtaceae fruiting habitThe Jaboticaba fruit is very tasty and interesting. This tree is in the backyard of the house of my parents and bring me a lot of sweet memories from my childhood
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Jaboticabas do meu quintalTree in full fruit
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Fig. 16. Jaboticabas, ainda verdes. Mais alguns dias e estarão deliciosas.
Fig. 19. Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) fruits, Brazilian Grape Tree, Guaperu, Guapuru, Hivapuru, Ybapuru, mother´s home, Sao paulo. Brazilian native.
Fig. 20. Jabotecaba, Myrciaria cauliflora. Myrtaceae fruiting habit
Fig. 21. The Jaboticaba fruit is very tasty and interesting. This tree is in the backyard of the house of my parents and bring me a lot of sweet memories from my childhood.
Fig. 22. Jaboticabas do meu quintal

Varieties Page

Harvesting
Fruit production may occur throughout the year but the heaviest bearing is in late March and April with hundreds of fruit on a large tree. A mature tree may produce 100 pounds of fruit over the course of a season. Yield is not always reliable and may vary form year to year. The fruit should be harvested a few days after maturity. The fruit spoils at room temperature in about two days. 5

Pollination
It has been reported from Brazil that solitary jaboticaba trees bear poorly compared with those planted in groups, which indicates that cross-pollination enhances productivity. 9

Propagation
Jaboticabas are usually grown from seeds in South America. These are nearly always polyembryonic, producing 4 to 6 plants per seed. They germinate in 20 to 40 days. Selected strains can be reproduced by inarching (approach-grafting) or air-layering. Budding is not easily accomplished because of the thinness of the bark and hardness of the wood. Side-veneer grafting is fairly successful. Experimental work has shown that propagation by tissue culture may be feasible. 9

Pruning
Without pruning, the tree branches close to the ground and forms a fairly tight network of primary and secondary branches. 3
Pruning of jaboticabas is not usually needed, but when pruned as a hedge, the fruit is not destroyed since it is formed only on the inner branches and trunk. 1

Fertilizing
In high pH soils, some special attention may be required to provide the proper nutrition. Fertilize it three times a year with a complete fertilizer. Chelated iron can be applied to correct iron deficiency. Be sure other micronutrients are part of the fertilizer mix. 5

Irrigation
As the root system is somewhat shallow, irrigation is usually required when the upper inch or two of soil become dry. 1

Pests
The plant is not often bothered by pests. Aphids, scales, nematodes and spider mites are minor, occasional problems. 5

Food Uses
Fresh fruit is delicious eaten out-of-hand and can be made into jellies, jams and wine. The skin is high in tannin and should not be consumed in large quantities over a long period of time. 1
"I love to cut them in half and suck the white juicy sweet flesh away from the thick skin. The flesh tends to stick to the seed and if one is patient, one can eventually clean the seed smooth with tongue and teeth. Don loves popping them into his mouth, giving the fruit a munch and swallowing the seed, flesh and juice and then removing the skin." 4

Jaboticaba from the Florida Food Fare, University of Florida pdf

Medicinal Uses **
A decoction made from the sun-dried skins, which is astringent, is used in Brazil as treatment for asthma, diarrhea and dysentery and for chronic inflammation of the tonsils.
Attention should be given to excessive consumption of this decoction, which could lead to too much tannin in the body, which is carcinogenic if taken over a long period of time. 9

General
The name jabuticaba, derived from the Tupi word jabuti (tortoise) + caba (place), meaning the place where you find tortoises. The Guarani name is yvapurũ, where yva means fruit, and the onomatopoeic word purũ for the crunching sound the fruit produces when bitten. 11


Further Reading
Subtropical Myrtaceae from Neglected Crops: 1492 from a Different Perspective
Jaboticaba from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
Further Information on the Jaboticaba from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
Jaboticabas, a New Crop to Look out For from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
The Jaboticaba from the Tropical Fruit News, Miami Rare Fruit Council
Jaboticaba from the Manatee County Master Gardening Bench
Myrciaria cauliflora from the University of Florida pdf
A Sweet Delight, the Jaboticaba from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia



List of Growers and Vendors


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Bibliography

1 "Jaboticaba." crfg.org. Fruit Facts. 1996. Web. 15 Jan. 2015.
2 Love, Ken and Paull, Robert E. "Jaboticaba." ctahr.hawaii.edu. Hawaii Tropical Fruit Growers, CTAHR Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences. 2011. Web. 14 Jan. 2015.
3 "Jaboticaba." rfcarchives.org.au. Article from EFGA Newsletter August 1986. Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia. Sept. 1986. Web. 15 Jan. 2015.
4 Gray, Christine. "A Sweet Delight the Jaboticaba." rfcarchives.org.au. Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia. Jan. 1992. Web. 15 Jan. 2015.
5 Brown, Stephen H. "Myrciaria cauliflora Family: Myrtaceae. Jaboticaba; Brazilian grapetree; jabuticaba; ybapuru." edis.ifas.ulf.edu. University of Florida, Lee County Extension. Apr. 2011. Web. 15 Jan. 2015.
6 Boning, Charles R. Florida's Best Fruiting Plants- Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Pineapple Press, Inc. sarasota, Florida. Print.
7 Guilman, Edward F. "Myrciaria cauliflora." edis.ifas.ulf.edu. This document is Fact Sheet FPS-419, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date: Oct. 1999. Web. 25 Jan. 2017.
8 "Plinia cauliflora (Mart.) Kausel synomyms." theplantlist.org. The Plant List (2010). Version 1. Web. 25 Jan. 2017.
9 Morton, J. "Jaboticabas." hort.purdue.edu. Fruits of Warm Climates, p. 371-374. 1987. Web. 15 Jan. 2015.
10 Barwick, Margaret. Tropical & Subtropical Trees. A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide. London, Thames & Hudson Ltd. 2004. Print.
11 "Jabuticaba." wikipedia.org. Web. 26 Jan. 2017.
12 Popenoe, Wilson. "The Jaboticaba." chestofbooks.com. Manual of Tropical and Subtropical fruits. 1920. Web. 15 Jan. 2015.

Photographs

Fig. 1,4,11 Myrciaria cauliflora, Plinia cauliflora, Eugenia cauliflora. N.d. toptropicals.org. Web. 27 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 2 Cody, Ben. Leaves of the Plinia cauliflora. 2008. commons.wikimedia.org. Public Domain. Web. 15 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 3 Starr, Forest and Kim. Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba, Brazilian grape tree). Leaves. Makawao, Maui. 2009. starrenvironmental.com.  Under (CC BY 4.0). Web. 25 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 5 Goulart, Daniela. Flor de jaboticaba. 2006. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Web. 27 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 6,20 Love, Ken. Jaboticaba, Myrciaria cauliflora, Myrtaceae. N.d. botany.hawaii.edu. University of Hawaii, Botany Department, Manoa Campus Plants. Web. 15 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 7 Caetano, Marise. Happy Quinta-flower! Jabuticaba - Myrciaria cauliflora. Fruit native to Brazil, bears stem berries, purple in color and absolutely delicious! 2012. flickr.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 27 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 8 RO, Sonia. Baby jabuticabas. 2008. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Web. 27 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 10,12 Campolina, Alexandre, Campola. Jabuticaba ripe fruit. 2007. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY 3.0). Web. 15 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 8 Hoffmann, Roberto Antonio. Jabuticabas. 2004. flickr.com. Web. 15 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 9,20 Mauroguanandi. Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora). 2009. flickr.com. Under (CC BY 2.0. ). Web. 15 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 13 Maximo, Gustavo. Jaboticaba. Esta semana madurou. Agora é distribuir pra familia e amigos. 2009. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-ND 2.0). Web. 27 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 14 Mauroguanandi. Jaboticabas (Myrciaria cauliflora). 2006. flickr.com. Under (CC BY 2.0. ). Web. 27 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 15 Karklis, Bruno. Fruta Jabuticaba Plinia cauliflora (syn. Myrciaria cauliflora). 2012. commons.wikimedia.org. Web. 15 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 16 Gorgônio, Kyller Costa. Jaboticabas, ainda verdes. Mais alguns dias e estarão deliciosas. 2010. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Web. 27 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 17 Rovielo, Elias. Jabuticabas. 2013. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Web. 27 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 18 guilhermedentista. Jaboticaba. N.d. pixabay.com. Public Domain. Web. 27 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 19 Mauroguanandi. Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) fruits, Brazilian Grape Tree, Guaperu, Guapuru, Hivapuru, Ybapuru, mother´s home, Sao paulo. Brazilian native. 2009. flickr.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 27 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 21 Fontes, Daniel Paixão. The Jaboticaba fruit is very tasty and interesting. This tree is in the backyard of the house of my parents and bring me a lot of sweet memories from my childhood. 2009. flickr.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 27 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 22 Remedios, Fernando. Jaboticabas do meu quintal. 2007. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Web. 27 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 23 Setlik, Felipe. Jabuticaba. 2006. flickr.com. Web. 15 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 24 Brown, S.H. Two low-branching and trimmed jaboticaba trees growing on the campus of Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School, Honduras. N.d.  edis.ifas.ulf.edu. University of Florida, Lee County Extension. Web. 15 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 25 Starr, Forest and Kim. Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba, Brazilian grape tree) Trunk. Makawao, Maui. 2009. starrenvironmental.com.  Under (CC BY 4.0). Web. 15 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 26 Starr, Forest and Kim. Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba, Brazilian grape tree) Habit. Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii. 2012. starrenvironmental.com.  Under (CC BY 4.0). Web. 25 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 27 Cutler, Wendy. I loved the trunk of this Myrciaria cauliflora, Brazilian Grape Tree, at Lyon Arboretum on Oahu. 2010. flickr.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 27 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 28 Treeworld Wholesale. Myrciaria Cauliflora (Jaboticaba Brazilian Grape Tree). 2016. flickr.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 27 Jan. 2017. 
Fig. 29 Starr, Forest and Kim. Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba, Brazilian grape tree). Bark at Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii. 2012. flickr.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 27 Jan. 2017.

UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas
** Information provided is not intended to be used as a guide for treatment of medical conditions.

Published 12 Apr. 2014 LR. Last update 27 Jan. 2017 LR
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