Kwai Muk - Artocarpus hypargyraeus
Kwai Muk fruit
Fig. 1 magnifying glass

Kwai Muk Leaves
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Artocarpus lingnanensis (Kwai muk) leaves at Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui

Kwai Muk (artocarpus hypargyraeus)
Fig. 3 magnifying glass
Kwai Muk (Artocarpus hypargyraeus) canopy

Fruit and leaves
Fig. 4 magnifying glass
Artocarpus lingnanensis (Kwai muk) fruit at Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui

Young fruit
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Fruit and leaves
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Artocarpus lingnanensis (Kwai muk) fruit on the ground at Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui
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Artocarpus lingnanensis (Kwai muk) fruit on the ground at Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui

Kwai Muk (Artocarpus hypargyraeus)
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Kwai Muk (Artocarpus hypargyraeus) trunk

Kwai Muk tree
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Artocarpus lingnanensis (Kwai muk) tree habit at Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui

Fruit, opened fruit and leaves of the Kwai Muk
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Scientific name
Artocarpus hypargyraeus
Synonyms
Artocarpus lingnanensis; A. hypargyraea
Relatives
Champedak, Artocarpus integer Merr.; jackfruit A. heterophyllus; lakoocha, A. lakoocha Roxb.; marang A. odoratissimus; pingan A. saraswakensis; butong A. nitidus; monkey jackfruit A. rigidus; pedalai A. sericicarpus; breadfruit A. altilis; Pudau A. kemando 3
Family
Moraceae
Origin
Native from Kwangtung, China, to Hong Kong 2
Uses
Fruit; good for landscaping of small urban properties 1
Height
20-25 ft (6-8 m) 1
Spread
20-25 ft (6-8 m) 1
Crown
Symmetrical, compact canopy without pruning
Plant habit
Slender, erect ornamental
Growth rate
Slow growing
Trunk/bark/branches
Stems, leaves and green fruits exude a white, sticky latex when they are cut or broken 1
Pruning requirement
Pruning is necessary only to remove dead branches or to decrease the height or width of the tree 1
Leaves
Evergreen; simple; stiff leathery texture; 3-6 in (7.62-15.24 cm) long 1
Flower
Yellowish male and female borne in solitary, axillary, obovoid, separate inflorescences on the same tree; May to July 1
Fruit
Multiple syncarp; plum-sized; irregular odd shape; yellow-brown, fuzzy skin; sweet, citrus-like taste; best flavor when ripe 1
Season
August to October
USDA Nutrient Content
Light requirement
Full sun to partial shade
Soil tolerances
Adapted to most Florida soils; grows especially well in the mildly acid sandy soils 1
PH preference
Unknown
Drought tolerance
Unknown
Aerosol salt tolerance
Unknown
Soil salt tolerance
Unknown
Cold tolerance
26 °F (-3.33 °C)
Plant spacing
12-15 ft (3.657-4.562 m)
Invasive potential *
None reported
Pest resistance
Unknown
Known hazard
None



Reading Material

The kwai muk, a tropical fruit tree for southern Florida from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
Kwai Muk from Julia Morton's book Fruits of Warm Climates
A Guide to Artocarpus Fruits from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia, inc.



Origin

The Kwai Muk, possibly A. lingnanensis Merr., was introduced into Florida as A. hypargyraea Hance, or A. hypargyraeus Hance ex Benth. The tree is native from Kwangtung, China, to Hong Kong, and has been introduced sparingly abroad. It was planted experimentally in Florida in 1927 and was thriving in Puerto Rico in 1929. It grows at an altitude of 500 ft (152 m) in
China. 2

Description
The 'kwai muk' tree grows to a height of 45 feet in China; mature trees in Florida generally attain a height of 20-25 feet. The following description is based on observations of trees growing in Dade County, Florida. The canopy is rounded and dense, with a width approximately equalling its height. The tree retains its leaves throughout the year and has an attractive appearance at all times. 1

Leaves
Simple, elliptic to elliptic-ovate, 3-6 in,long, with a stiff, leathery texture, acuminate tips and entire margins. They are shiny and dark green on the upper surface and dull medium green on the lower surface; both surfaces are glabrous. 1

Flowers
The yellowish male and female flowers are borne in solitary, axillary, obovoid, separate inflorescences on the same tree. The minute flowers are joined and the in florescence develops into a multiple fruit, a syncarp. Flowering occurs from May to July. 1

Fruit
The fruits are more or less oblate and irregular, 1 to 2 in (2.5-5 cm) wide, with velvety, brownish, thin, tender skin and replete with latex when unripe. When ripe, the pulp is orange-red or red, soft, of agreeable subacid to acid flavor and may be seedless or contain 1 to 7 small, pale seeds. 2

Harvesting
Ripens from August to October in Florida. 2
The fruit must be completely ripe for fresh consump tion; unripe fruit exudes a white, sticky latex when the skin is broken. 1

Pollination

The fruit have 1-7 seeds, the number apparently affect ing the size and shape of the fruit. Isolated trees oiten bear many small, seedless fruit, suggesting that the tree is self-incompatible and needs cross-pollination to produce viable seed and fruit of normal size. 1

Propagation
Propagation has been done in Florida entirely by seed. Seed take several weeks to germinate and the young plants grow slowly. 1

Culture
Young trees are injured by brief drops in temperature to 28° to 30°F (-2.22°-1.11°C). Mature trees have endured 25° to 26°F (-3.89°-3.33°C) in Homestead, Florida; have been killed by 20°F (-6.67°C) in central Florida. 2

Fertilizing
Trees grow well when maintained on a fertilizer program such as that used for citrus trees in home gardens. 1

Irrigation
Well-established trees appear to need irrigation under Florida conditions only during extended dry periods, which can cause leaf drop and limb dieback if the trees do not receive water. 1

Pest/disease
No pests or diseases are recognized at this time as causing significant damage to kwai muk trees in Florida. It should be recognized, however, that existing plantings consist of only a few trees growing at widely separated locations, a situation not conducive to the development of pests and diseases. This situation could change if large plantings were made. 2

Food Uses
The pulp is edible raw; can be preserved in sirup or dried. 1

General
The stems, leaves and green fruits exude a white, sticky latex when they are cut or broken.  Fruits ripen in late summer and early fall, and often ripen seedless. Smallish orange-brown fruit with fuzzy skin and a nice sub-acid taste. 



List of Growers and Vendors
Bibliography

1 Campbell, Carl W. "The kwai muk, a tropical fruit tree for southern Florida." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 6020. 1984. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.

2 Morton, Julia. "Jackfruit." hort.purdue.edu. Fruits of warm climates. p. 58–64. 1987. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.
3 'Kwai Muk." tradewindsfruit.com. Web. 13 Jan. 2017.

Photographs

Fig. 1,5,6,10 Artocarpus hypargyraeus, Kwai Muk. N.d. Top Tropicals Tropical Plant Catalog. toptropicals.com. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.

Fig. 2,4,7,9 Artocarpus lingnanensis (Kwai muk) at Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui. 2009. starrenvironmental.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 25 Sept. 2014.
Fig. 3,8 Alejandro, Javier. Kwai Muk (Artocarpus hypargyraeus). 2015. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0). Web. 13 Jan. 2017.

UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas

Published 25 Sept. 2014 LR. Last update 13 Jan. 2017 LR
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