|Jackfruit - Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.|
Jackfruit 'Black Gold'
A close-up view of the surface of a ripening jackfruit, showing individual fruitlets. Photographed in Trissur, Kerala state, India
Stcky white latex impedes separating the edible part of the fruit and can be removed from the handler's hands using cooking oil.
Jaca dura (Fruto)
New leaf growth
Male and female flowers
Jackfruit, young fruit
Latex dripping from a cut stem
Nice jackfruits found at the Japanese Cemetery Park (Chuan Hoe Avenue, Singapore)
Jackfruit, the national fruit of Bangladesh
This mature tree is kept 8ft tall by cutting the top off (fruit form at the base of a trunk)
Extracting the jackfruit arils and separating the seeds from the sweet flesh
Durian and jackfruit vendor in Manhattan's Chinatown. Plastic containers with durian and jackfruit on the table (and a pile of jackfruit rags)
Lady selling jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) at Siem Reap, Cambodia
Selling jackfruit in Bangkok
Jack fruit for sale in Guayabitos, Nayarit, Mexico
Note: part of the stem left to stop the latex from bleeding
Jackfruit, Saigon, Vietnam
Though native to South Asia, the jackfruit is quite popular in central Africa. Bigodi, Uganda
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.
English: jackfruit, jack, jakfruit, jak; Spanish: arbol del pan, jaquiero, jaca; Portuguese: jaca, jaqueira; Swedish: jackfrukt; German: Nangka, Jacfruchtbaum; French: jacquier; India:
Artocarpus philippensis Lam.; Artocarpus maximus Blanco; Artocarpus brasiliensis Ortega 6
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), fig (Ficus sp.), mulberry (Morus sp.), champedak (A. integer), kwai muk (A. lingnanensis), Ficus benjamina 1
Bangladesh, India, Malaysia 4
USDA hardiness zones
Eaten fresh, dried, or preserved in syrup or used for salads; seeds can be boiled/roasted; immature fruit may be used as a vegetable in soups, baked/fried dishes1
30-40 ft (9–12 m)
11-12 ft (3.5-6.7 m)
Canopy dense, dome shaped or rarely pyramidal 4
Erect, evergreen, fairly large tree
Straight stemmed, branching near the base at an angle of 32-88 deg; bark greyish-brown, rough, uneven, somewhat scaly 4
Will become very large if not pruned to contain their size; height may be maintained at 8-14 ft (2.4-4.26 m) by periodic selective pruning 1
Dark green; glossy; somewhat leathery; fairly large and oval shaped on mature wood and deeply lobed on young shoots 1
Short, stout flowering twigs emerge from the trunk and large branches; monoecious 1
Multiple fruit; large to very large; rough/thick skin; sweet, aromatic, crispy pulp
Typically weigh 10-40 lb (4.535-18.143 kg)
May to November
USDA Nutrient Content Canned pdf
USDA Nutrient Content Raw pdf
Full sun to partial shade
Tolerate sand, sandy loams, and the rocky, well-drained, high pH, calcareous soils of southern Florida 1
Moderately drought tolerant
Not tolerant of continuously wet and/or flooded soil conditions 1
Tolerant of mild to moderately windy conditions;may survive and recover from hurricane force winds with some limb damage 1
Soil/water salt tolerance
Limited information of jackfruit tree tolerance to saline soil and/or water; probably not tolerant of saline conditions 1
Leaves may be damaged at 32°F (0°C), branches at 30°F (-1°C), and branches and trees may be killed at 28°F (-2°C) 1
If planning to prune the trees annually, 20 to 25 feet (6.1–7.6 m) 1
Invasive potential *
Not a problem species (un-documented)
Some problems with boring insects and scales
All parts of the leaf contain a sticky white latex 1
Raw seeds are indigestible and contain a trypsin inhibitor, which is dispelled through cooking 8
Jackfruit Growing in the Florida Home Landscape from the University of Florida pdf 10 pages
Jackfruit from the California Rare Fruit Growers Inc.
Jackfruit from Julia Morton's book Fruits of Warm Climates
Jackfruit from the University of Hawaii at Manoa CTAHR pdf 7 pages
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. from Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforesty pdf 17 pages
No one really knows the Jackfruit's place of origin but it is believed to be indigenous to the rainforests of the Western Ghats. 2
The jackfruit is the world's largest tree-borne fruit. The fruit can take on the proportiong of a large watermelon and can weigh more than 80 pounds. Oblong, spiky, oddly retivulated, the fruit dangle from the trunk and major branches on ttout cords. A fruiting tree presents a sensational visual impact. The fruit possesse a fine tropical flavor. The tree is stately and handsome and serves as a beautiful shade tree whan it reaches maturity. It deserves to be planted on a broad scale and its populary as a dooryard tree in Florida is soaring. 8
Images of the Tree and Fruit
Fig. 34. Handsome and stately, two trees with dissimilar appearances
Fig. 35. Jackfruit tree in Gujarat, India
Fig. 36. Jak (Artocarpus heterophyllus) au Jardin botanique de Kandy (Sri Lanka)
The jackfruit leaves are evergreen, alternate, glossy, somewhat leathery to 9 in (22.5 cm) long, oval on mature wood, sometimes oblong or deeply lobed on young shoots. All parts contain a sticky, white latex. 2
Fig. 11. Jackfruit leaves, freshly plucked green leaf and a naturally fallen dead leaf
Short, stout flowering twigs emerge from the trunk and large branches. The tree is monoecious (i.e., male and female flowers on the same tree) with small male flowers held by a thin pedicel. Female flowers are larger than the males and the pedicel is quite thick. 1
Flowers are attached externally to the male and the female fruit.
The jackfruit is a multiple fruit i.e., composed of the coherence of multiple flowers (Fig. 15,16 ). Fruit is moderately large to very large, weighing from 10 to 60 pounds (4.5–27.3 kg). A few cultivars are small fruited, weighing 3 to 10 pounds (1.4–4.5 kg) each. The skin is extremely rough and thick. Fruit skin color is green when immature and green, greenish-yellow to brownish-yellow when ripe. The inside of the fruit contains the edible, sweet, aromatic, crispy, soft, or melting pulp that surrounds each seed. Between the seeds and edible pulp is the inedible “rag". Pulp color varies from amber to yellow, dark yellow, or orange. Seeds are ¾ to 1¼ inches (2 to 3 cm) long, oval; the number per fruit varies from 30 to 500. The time from flowering to fruit maturity ranges from 150 to 180 days. 1
How to tell when it is ripe from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
Fig. 20. Fruit habit
Fig. 21. Different stages of growth
Fig. 22. Fruit habit, grows on trunk and branches
Fig. 23. Jackfruit growing on a tree in Can Tho, Vietnam
Fig. 24. Jackfruit in Gujarat, India
There is limited experience on the performance of jackfruit cultivars under various conditions; however, initial evaluation of a number of cultivars has been completed, see
Varieties Page from the University of Florida. 1
Cultivar Descriptions from Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium
Curator's Choice Jackfruit from Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden
"A new generation of jackfruit includes smaller varieties" from Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden
The main fruiting season is in summer and fall. Some fruit may ripen at other times, but usually not in winter and early spring. 1
Mature jackfruit trees may produce from 40 to over 250 pounds (18–114 kg) per tree, depending on the cultivar, weather, and cultural practices. Trees that average 150 pounds (68 kg) per tree or more are considered good producers. 1
Harvest fruit with clippers or loppers. The cut stem will immediately exude white, sticky latex; this latex will permanently stain clothing. Wrap the cut end with a paper towel to make handling easier, or set the fruit on its side until the flow of latex ceases. 1
Jackfruit are wind and insect pollinated, and generally fruit set and fruit quality is enhanced by cross pollination among different cultivars (or seedlings). 1
Jackftuit Appearance and Pollination by the University of Florida pdf 16 pages
Fig. 25. Male fruits emerge first and the female fruits are pollinated after emergence
Fig. 26. Pollen laden male flowers and receptive female flowers are fuzzy. To pollinate, pick male fruit and brush it against female fruit.
Fig. 27. Hand pollination ensures development of female fruits. Female fruits insufficiently pollinated will fall from the tree before maturing.
Fig. 28. The smaller male fruit rapidly decays after dispensing its pollens.
Seed storage behaviour is recalcitrant. Viability is maintained for 2 years in moist storage at 15 deg. C, seeds kept in polythene bags filled with perlite at 6 deg. C. There are about 430 seeds/kg. 4
The jackfruit is well adapted to the hot humid tropics. Jackfruit grows well in the humid subtropical climate of south Florida along the coastal areas where there are only occasional freezes. Optimum growth and production occurs in continuously warm areas. 1
Cultural Calendar from the University of Florida
Young jackfruit trees do not need pruning during their first year. Shoot tip pruning once or twice during spring and summer will force lateral bud break and make the tree more compact. Non-pruned trees usually develop a strong central leader. During the second season, trees should be pruned to the first lateral branch, which will slow upward growth and enhance spreading of the canopy. As trees mature, upright vigorous shoots should be removed and the inner canopy thinned out at the end of the harvest season. 1
The number of fruit per tree or major limb should be limited to 1 on young trees, as heavy fruit loads have been observed to result in limb decline or death and tree stunting. On mature trees, limiting the number of fruit per major limb may enhance the quality and size of remaining fruit. 1
For mature trees, fertilizer should be applied 2 to 3 times from bloom to right after harvesting and pruning. Iron applications are most effective from May to September, and foliar sprays from April to September. 1
A means of watering young trees should be available for newly planted and young trees. Regular watering during dry periods is recommended for newly planted and young trees. For mature trees watering is recommended during dry periods and is critical from bloom through fruit development. 1
Pest and Disease Page
Jackfruit may be eaten as a vegetable when picked at an immature stage or eaten fresh when picked at a mature stage and allowed to ripen. Immature fruit are usually 1 to 3 months old, are green and may be harvested for cooking. 1
Green, immature fruit may be used as a vegetable in cooking including soups, baked dishes, and fried. The pulp of ripe fruit may be eaten fresh, dried, or preserved in syrup or used for salads. The seeds can be boiled and roasted (eaten as a nut) and have a chestnut flavor. 1
Because unripe jackfruit has a meat-like taste, it is used in curry dishes with spices in Bihar, Jharkhand, Sri Lankan, Andhran, eastern Indian Bengali, Odisha and Keralan cuisines. The skin of unripe jackfruit must be peeled first; then the remaining whole jackfruit can be chopped into edible portions and cooked before serving. Young jackfruit has a mild flavor and distinctive meat-like texture and is compared to poultry. Meatless sandwiches have been suggested and are popular with both vegetarian and nonvegetarian populations. 7
Arils can be fermented and distilled to produce an alcoholic beverage. 4
Jackfruit Preparation from the Indian Council of Agriculture Research, Govt. of India
Recipes from Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium
How to Use the Jackfruit from Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium
Fig. 39. Es teler, an Indonesian dessert made from shaved ice, condensed milk, coconut, avocado, and jackfruit.
Fig. 40. Gudeg, (left), the unripe jackfruit curry in a reddish color acquired from the teak leaf, a specialty of Yogyakarta in Java
Fig. 41. Green jackfruit and potato curry, Kolkata. Popular West Bengal dishes.
Fig. 42. Chakka-chips, jackfruit fried
Fig. 43. Packed jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) sold in a market.
Fig. 44. Polythene packed cut Jack fruit in a grocery store in Canada for sale
Medicinal Uses **
All parts of the plant have medicinal properties. The root is a remedy for skin diseases and asthma and the extract is taken in cases of fever and diarrhea.
The ashes of the leaves, burned together with corn and coconut shells are used alone or mixed with coconut oil to heal ulcers. Mixed with vinegar, the latex promotes healing of abscesses, snakebite and glandular swellings. Heated leaves alone are placed on wounds and the bark is made into poultices. The seed starch is given to relieve biliousness and the roasted seeds are regarded as aphrodisiac. In Chinese medicine the pulp and seeds are considered tonic and nutritious. 2
The wood contains the yellow colorant, morin and the colorless cyanomaclurin. In 1955, workers in Bombay reported and a new yellow colorant called artocarpin. And the National Chemical Laboratory in Poona has isolated other six flavonoids. 2
A rich yellow dye used for dyeing silk and the cotton robes of Buddhist priests is made from the wood chips boiled with alum. The bark is occasionally made into cordage or cloth.
The wood is beautiful, resembling mahogany and changing with age from orange or yellow to brown or dark-red.
It has many qualities: it is termite proof, fairly resistant to fungal and bacterial decay, which makes it superior to teak (its strength is 75 to 80% that of teak) for furniture, construction, turnery and musical instruments. 2
The generic name comes from the Greek words ‘artos’ (bread) and ‘karpos’ (fruit); the fruits are eaten and are commonly called breadfruit. The specific name, ‘heterophyllus’, is Latin for various leaved, or with leaves of different sizes and shapes; it is from the Greek word ‘heteros’ (different). 4
Jackfruit, the National Fruit of Bangladesh from the Indian Council of Agriculture Research, Govt. of India
Jackfruit Hints from from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
Jackfruit Tips From Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforesty
The Promise of Jakfruit from the Tropical Fruit News magazine of the Miami Rare Fruit Council International
A guide to jackfruit cultivation from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
A Guide to Artocarpus Fruits from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
Jackfruit from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
Artocarpus heterophyllus, Lam. from the World Agroforesty Center
Jackfruit Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry pdf 17 pages
Jackfruit Improvement in the Asia-Pacific Region from the Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions pdf 192 pages
Jackfruit Botanical Art
List of Growers and Vendors
1 Crane, Jonathan H., Balerdi, Carlos F. and Maguire, Ian. "Jackfruit Growing in the Florida Home Landscape." edis .ifas.ufl.edu. This document is Fact Sheet HS-882, one in a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Publication date May 2002. Revised Oct. 2005 and Nov. 2016. Web. 17 Jan. 2017.
2 Morton, J. "Jackfruit." hort.purdue.edu. Fruits of warm climates, p. 58-64. 1987. Web. 18 Dec. 2014.
3 "Jackfruit." wikipedia.org. Web. 22 Dec. 2014.
Fig. 1, Maguire, Ian. Jackfruit. N.d. trec.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 20 Dec. 2014.
Fig. 12,21 Artocarpus heterophyllus. N.d. Top Tropicals Tropical Plant Catalog. toptropicals.com. Web 21 Dec. 2014.
Fig. 17,37 Aguilar, Reinaldo. Latex dripping from a cut stem. Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. 2012. Vascular Plants of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. flicrk.com. Under (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Web. 21 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 19 Balaram Mahalder. Jackfruit, the national fruit of Bangladesh. 2011. commons.wikimedia.org. Web. 19 Dec. 2014.
Fig. 25,26,27,28 Brown, S.H. and Crane, Jonathan. Jackfruit: Pollination. N.d. PPP Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Appearance and Pollination. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 18 Dec. 2014.
Fig. 31 This mature tree is kept 8ft tall by cutting the top off (fruit form at the base of a trunk). N.d. Top Tropicals Tropical Plant Catalog. toptropicals.com. Web. 18 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 34 Fig. Brown, S.H. Handsome and stately, two trees with dissimilar appearances. N.d. PPP Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Appearance and Pollination. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 18 Dec. 2014.
Fig. 38 Aznaturalist. Extracting the jackfruit arils and separating the seeds from the sweet flesh. 2012. wikipedia.org. Web. 19 Dec. 2014.
Fig. 40 Lanin, Ivan. Gudeg,(left), the unripe jackfruit curry in a reddish color acquired from the teak leaf, a specialty of Yogyakarta in Java. 2008. wikipedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 18 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 45 Rhododendrites. Durian and jackfruit vendor in Manhattan's Chinatown. Plastic containers with durian and jackfruit on the table (and a pile of jackfruit rags). 2016. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 19 Jan. 2017.* UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas
** Information provided is not intended to be used as a guide for treatment of medical conditions.
Published 17 Dec. 2014 LR. Last update 28 Jan. 2017 LR