Jackfruit - Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.
Jackfruit 'Black Gold'

Jackfruit Growing in the Florida Home Landscape from the University of Florida pdf 10 pages

Jackfruit from the California Rare Fruit Growers Inc.

Jackfruit from Julia Morton's book Fruits of Warm Climates

Jackfruit Preparation from the Indian Council of Agriculture Research, Govt. of India

Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. from Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforesty pdf 17 pages

Images of the Tree and Fruit

Diseases and Pests

How to Use the Jackfruit from Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium

Cultural Calendar from the University of Florida

Varieties

Cultivar Descriptions from Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium

Recipes from Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium


Fig. 1

 

Other Information:

 

Synonyms: Artocarpus integrifolius Auct.; A. integra Merr.
Other common names: English - jakfruit, jak; Spanish - jaca; Portuguese - jaca, jaqueira
Family: Moraceae

Relatives in the same family: Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), fig (Ficus sp.), mulberry (Morus sp.), champedak (A. integer), kwai muk

(A. lingnanensis), Ficus benjamina. 1

Yield: Typically weigh 10 to 40 pounds

Season: May to November

Damage temp. 28F

PH preference: 5.0-7.5

Light requirement: Full sun to partial shade

USDA zones: 10-11

USDA Nutrient Content Raw pdf

USDA Nutrient Content Canned pdf

The jackfruit is an attractive, wind resistant tree from India that bears large green fruits directly from its main branches and trunk. The yellow, orange, or pink flesh within the ripe fruit from selected varieties are sweet and juicy with a crisp texture and pleasant aroma. The tree is generally deep rooted with a strong taproot facilitating firm anchorage, and greater resistance to drought as well as high wind.


The tree is handsome and stately, 30 to 70 ft (9-21 m) tall, with evergreen, alternate, glossy, somewhat leathery leaves to 9 in (22.5 cm) long, oval on mature wood, sometimes oblong or deeply lobed on young shoots. All parts contain a sticky, white latex. Short, stout flowering twigs emerge from the trunk and large branches, or even from the soil-covered base of very old trees. 2

Leaf underside Jackfruit leave New leaf growth

Fig. 2

Fig. 3 Fig. 4
Leaves Male flower Male and female flowers
Fig. 5

Fig. 6 

Fig. 5

Pollination

 

Pollination Pollination
Fig. 8     Fig. 9   
Hand pollination ensures development of female fruits. The smaller male fruit rapidly decays after dispensing its pollens

Fig. 10  

Hand pollination ensures development of female fruits.

Fig. 11  

The smaller male fruit rapidly decays after dispensing its pollens

 

Jackftuit Appearance and Pollination by the University of Florida pdf 16 pages
 

Growth Habit

 

Developing jackfruit Habit of growth Credit: Kwan © NatureLoveYou.sg Habit of growth Jackfruit growth habit

Fig. 12  

Developing jackfruit

Fig. 13   Fig. 14   Fig. 15
Habit of growth Growth habit of the fruit Growth habit

Fig. 16  

 

Fig. 17   Fig. 18  

Propagation 

                                       

Jackfruit may be propagated by seed, grafting, and cuttings. In some areas, seed propagation is still used. Jackfruit from seed may be more precocious than many other fruit, and trees may begin production in the 3rd to 4th year. Seeds should be collected from trees that have regular, high yields and that also have good horticultural characters, such as insect, disease, and nematode resistance, proper fruit size and excellent pulp quality. Seeds are relatively short lived and may be stored up to about 30 days. In south Florida, seedlings and grafted trees are used. 1

Jackfruit Propagation
 

Jackfruit Jackfruit exterior Inside of the jackfruit
Fig. 19   Fig. 20   Fig. 21  
Cleaning a ripe jackfruit Extracting the jackfruit arils and separating the seeds from the sweet flesh

Fig. 22  

Cleaning a ripe jackfruit

Fig. 23  

Extracting the jackfruit arils and separating the seeds from the sweet flesh

            

Jackfruit may be eaten as a vegetable when picked at an immature stage or eaten fresh when picked at a mature stage and allowed to ripen. Immature fruit are usually 1 to 3 months old, are green and may be harvested for cooking.
Mature fruit have 35% to 40% edible flesh. However, it is not easy to determine when the fruit is ripe. There are several fruit characteristics that may be used alone or together to indicate a particular cultivar is mature. In many cultivars the skin color changes from green to light green or yellow. Maturing fruits usually develop a strong aroma and the peel spines flatten and widen. Green fruits have a solid sound when tapped whereas ripe fruits have a hollow sound. 1

How to tell when it is ripe from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia

Cool temperatures (<60oF; 16oC) may delay ripening. The proper storage temperatures for jackfruit have not been determined. Fruit pulp may be stored in the refrigerator and fully ripe fruit segments may be placed in polyethylene bags and frozen for later use. 1

 

Jackfruit chips Jackfruit flesh Jackfruit seed

Fig. 24  

Jackfruit chips

Fig. 25  

Raw

Fig. 26  

Seeds

 

The seeds from ripe fruits are edible, are said to have a milky, sweet taste, and may be boiled, baked or roasted. When roasted the flavor of the seeds is comparable to chestnuts. Seeds are used as snacks either by boiling or fire roasted, also used to make desserts. For making the traditional breakfast dish in southern India: idlis, the fruit is used along with rice as an ingredient and jackfruit leaves are used as a wrapping for steaming. Jackfruit dosas can be prepared by grinding jackfruit flesh along with the batter. Jackfruit wood is widely used in the manufacture of furniture, doors and windows, and in roof construction. The heartwood is used by Buddhist forest monastics in Southeast Asia as a dye, giving the robes of the monks in those traditions their distinctive light-brown color. 3


Jackfruit, the national fruit of Bangladesh

Fig. 27  

Jackfruit, the National Fruit of Bangladesh from the Indian Council of Agriculture Research, Govt. of India

 

Tree form Trunk Credit: Kwan © NatureLoveYou.sg

Fig. 28  

Fig. 29  

 

Selling jackfruit in Bangkok

Fig. 30

Selling jackfruit in Bangkok

Jackfruit wood is widely used in the manufacture of furniture, doors and windows, and in roof construction. The heartwood is used by Buddhist forest monastics in Southeast Asia as a dye, giving the robes of the monks in those traditions their distinctive light-brown color.

Further Reading

"A new generation of jackfruit includes smaller varieties" from Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden

Curator's Choice Jackfruit from Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden

Jackfruit Hints from from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia

Jackfruit Tips From Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforesty

A guide to jackfruit cultivation from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia

A Guide to Artocarpus Fruits from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia

More Photography

Jackfruit from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia

 

Check our List of Growers & Vendors
 

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Bibliography

1 Crane, Jonathan H., Balerdi, Carlos F. and Maguire, Ian. "Jackfruit Growing in the Florida Home Landscape." edis .ifas.ufl.edu. This document is Fact Sheet HS-882, one in a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Publication date May 2002. Major revision October 2005. Reviewed July 2013. Web. 17 Dec. 2014.

2 Morton, J. "Jackfruit." hort.purdue.edu. Fruits of warm climates, p. 58-64. 1987.  Web. 18 Dec. 2014.

3 "Jackfruit." wikipedia.org. Web. 22 Dec. 2014.

Photographs

Fig. 1,6,17 Maguire, Ian. Jackfruit. N.d. trec.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 20 Dec. 2014.

Fig. 7 Artocarpus heterophyllus. N.d. Top Tropicals Tropical Plant Catalog. toptropicals.com.  Web 21 Dec. 2014.

Fig. 2,3,4,5,13,16,26,28,29 Kwan. Artocarpus heterophyllus. 2010. natureloveyou.sg. Web 21 Dec. 2014.

Fig. 8,9,10,11 Brown, S.H. and Crane, Jonathan.Jackfruit: Pollination. N.d. PPP Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Appearance and Pollination. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 18 Dec. 2014.

Fig.18 Robitaille, Liette. "Jackfruit Series". 2014. growables.org. Web 21 Dec. 2014. File JPG

Fig. 19,21 Popovkin, Alex. Artocarpus heterophyllus. 2007. flicrk.com. Web. 20 Dec. 2014.

Fig.20 Jackson, Karen. "Jackfruit Series". 2014. growables.org. Web 21 Dec. 2014. File JPG

Fig. 23 Aznaturalist. Extracting the jackfruit arils and separating the seeds from the sweet flesh. 2012. wikipedia.org. Web. 19 Dec. 2014.Fig. 22 Maguire, Ian. Cleaning a ripe jackfruit. N.d. trec.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 20 Dec. 2014.

Fig. Ahoerstemeier. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) fruit on the tree. 2003. In Chaiya, Surat Thani Province, Thailand. wikipedia.org. Web. 19 Dec. 2014.

Fig. 24 Flyingbird. Jackfruit chips. 2003. wikipedia.org. Web. 19 Dec. 2014.

Fig. 25 Mullookkaaran. Jackfruit flesh. 2012. wikipedia.org. Web. 19 Dec. 2014.

Fig. 27  Balaram Mahalder. Jackfruit, the national fruit of Bangladesh. 2011. commonswikipedia.org. Web. 19 Dec. 2014.

Fig. 30 Xufanc. Selling jackfruit in Bangkok. 2012. wikipedia.org. Web. 19 Dec. 2014.

Published 17 Dec. 2014 LR. Updated 26 Feb. 2015 LR

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