Abiu - Pouteria caimito
Abiu Cross Section
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Abiu cross section

Pouteria caimito (Abiu fruit). Habit at Pali, Waipio, Maui, Hawaii.
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Pouteria caimito (Abiu fruit). Habit at Pali, Waipio, Maui, Hawaii.

Pouteria caimito (Abiu fruit). Fruit at Pali, Waipio Huelo, Maui, Hawaii
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Pouteria caimito (Abiu fruit). Fruit at Pali, Waipio Huelo, Maui, Hawaii

Abiu Unripe
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Abiu unripe

This ripe Abiu fruit is yellow with green speckles and smooth, rounded shape.
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This ripe Abiu fruit is yellow with green speckles and smooth, rounded shape.

Abiu Fruit Interior
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Abiu fruit interior

The Abiu fruit stem is short and separates flush with the fruit.
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The Abiu fruit stem is short and separates flush with the fruit

Pouteria caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Radlk. (Cultivado)
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Attachment to the stem
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Unripe fruit's attachment to the stem
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Inflorescense
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Inflorescense
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Leaf habit
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Immature fruit and leaves
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Immature fruit and leaves

Tree habit
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Latex exuding from a cut branch
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Latex exuding from a cut branch

Seeds
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Fruta do Abieiro, Pouteria caimito
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Fruta do Abieiro, Pouteria caimito

Abiu fruits for sale in August in southern Florida, USA.
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Abiu fruits for sale in August in southern Florida, USA

Bananaquit eating abiu fruit from Blumenau, Brasil
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Scientific name
Pouteria caimito Radlk.
Common names
Abiu, yellow sapote (English); amarilla, madura verde (Columbia); cauje, luma (Ecuador); temare (Venezuela); caimito, caimo, cauje, abiurana, abi,abio, abieiro (Brazil) 1
Synonyms
Achras caimito Benth., Guapeda caimito Pierre, Labatia caimito Mart., Lucuma caimito Roem & Sch., and P. Leucophaea Baehni
Relatives
Mamey sapote, canistel, green sapote, sapodilla
Family
Sapotaceae
Origin
Amazonian region of South America
Uses
Used fresh, in salad with other fruit; ripe pulp can be added to sherbets, jams, yogourt or dried
Height
30-40 ft (9.1-12.2 m); up to 115 ft (35 m) in tropical areas 1
Spread
Pyramidal
Crown
Dense, pyramidal or rounded crown
Plant habit
Secondary and tertiary branches are generally willow-like (thin and long); when heavy with fruit, hang downward 1
Longevity
It will bear fruit for 20 years
Trunk/bark/branches
Rough grey to brown bark; exudes white latex when cut
Pruning requirement
Keep low to facilitate harvesting
Leaves
Evergreen; alternate, oblong to elliptic; 4-8 in. (10-20 cm) long and 1 1/4to 2 3/8 in. (3.2-6.0 cm) wide 1
Flower
Small with four to five cylindrical petals; white to greenish; hermaphroditic, meaning they are both sexes; open in the morning and can stay open for about two days 2
Fruit
Round to oval with a point; smooth bright yellow skin; inside is translucent, white; creamy/ jelly-like texture; taste is similar to the sapodilla 1
Season
August to October 3
Crop
The amount of fruit produced varies greatly among abiu seedling trees. Some mature seedling trees may produce little fruit; others yield 400 lbs (182 kg) of fruit per year 1
Light requirement
Full sun
Soil tolerances
Fertile, acid- to slightly alkaline-pH, well-drained soils; trees growing in high-pH, alkaline soils may develop iron deficiency
PH preference
5.5-7.5
Drought tolerance
Abiu grows best in hot, humid, tropical climates with well distributed rainfall; quite drought tolerant if protected from cold or dry winds by a windbreak
Cold tolerance
Young trees may be killed  below 32°F (0°C); mature trees at 29-31°F (-0.5 to -1.6°C) 1
Plant spacing
Should be planted at least 25 ft (7.6 m) from nearby trees and structures
Invasive potential *
None reported
Pest resistance
Few insect pests attack abiu, however, as the number of trees increases, various insects will most likely be found feeding on abiu



Reading Material

Abiu from Julia Morton's book Fruits of Warm Climates
Abiu Growing in the Florida Home Landscape from the Universtity of Florida pdf 5 pages
Abiu from the University of Hawai'i at Manoa pdf 6 pages
Abiu from Wilson Popenoe's book Manual Of Tropical And Subtropical Fruits
Abiu- Pouteria caimito from the Sub-Tropical Fruit Club of Qld Inc.



Origin

The abiu is a denizen of the headwaters of the Amazon. It grows wild on the lower eastern slopes of the Andes from southwestern Venezuela to Peru. It is often cultivated around Iquitos, Peru. In Ecuador, it is common in the Province of Guayas and the fruits are sold in the markets of Guayaquil. It is much grown around Pará, Brazil; less frequently near Rio de Janeiro, and to a limited extent at Bahia. In Colombia, it is fairly common in the regions of Caquetá, Meta and Vaupés and it abounds in the adjacent areas of Amazonas, Venezuela. It has been growing for many years in Trinidad. 5

Description
The tree has a pyramidal or rounded crown; is generally about 33 ft (10 m) high but may reach 115 ft (35 m) in favorable situations. A gummy latex, white or reddish, exudes from wounds in the bark.

Leaves
The leaves are alternate and highly variable; may be ovate-oblong, obovate or elliptic; 4 to 8 in (10-20 cm) long, 1 1/4 to 2 3/8 in (3-6 cm) wide; short-pointed at the apex, sometimes long-tapering at the base; smooth or with a few scattered hairs. 5

Underside of leafDense crown
Fig. 14 magnifying glass Fig. 15 magnifying glass

Flowers
The flowers are small and white and appear singly or in clusters at the axil of the leaf or leaf scar, and a branch may have up to 280 flowers. Abiu does not appear to need a dry period to trigger flowering. 7

Fruit
The fruit, downy when young, is ovoid, elliptical or round; 1 1/2 to 4 in (4-10 cm) long, sometimes having a short nipple at the apex; with smooth, tough, pale-yellow skin when ripe and fragrant, white, mucilaginous, translucent, mild-flavored, sweet or insipid pulp containing 1 to 4 oblong seeds, brown, with a pale hilum on one side. Until fully ripe, the fruit is permeated with latex and is very gummy and astringent. 5

Varieties
There are a number of abiu varieties (e.g., 'Caribou','Gray', 'Z-2'); however, few selections or varieties are available in Florida. 1

Harvesting
As abiu fruit mature, the peel changes from green to light green and then yellow, indicating it is ready to pick. Abiu should only be picked when fully mature, i.e., partial color break to full yellow color; however, fruit with a dark golden color are overripe. Fruit picked before fully mature contain a large amount of sticky, white latex, making consumption unpleasant. 1
The amount of fruit produced varies greatly among abiu seedling trees. Some mature seedling trees may produce little fruit; others yield 400 lbs (182 kg) of fruit per year. 1

Pollination

No specific information on the pollination requirements or pollinators (insects) of abiu has been documented. Flying insects are probably the pollinators. 1

Propagation
Abiu is commonly propagated by seed; seedling trees usually begin fruit production in 3 to 4 years after planting. Once extracted from the fruit, abiu seeds do not remain viable for more than a couple of days and should therefore be planted as soon possible into clean, well-drained media. Seedling trees come into production in 2 to 5 years from planting. Abiu may also be grafted or budded onto seedling rootstocks and begin fruiting in 1 to 2 years. 1
Almost always by seeds, which germinate quickly when fresh. Seedling trees show considerable variation in fruit growth. Fruiting from seed can be expected in 3+ years. Grafting and Air-Layering are used to propagate superior strains

Planting
Abiu trees are sensitive to cool, non-freezing temperatures and windy conditions, and should be planted only in warm, wind-protected areas. 1

Pruning
Young abiu trees should be trained to form 3 to 5 main scaffold limbs during the first 2 to 3 years after planting. Mature trees should be maintained at 8 to 12 ft (2.4-3.7 m) by annual, selective removal of poorly placed and upright limbs. 1

Irrigation
Abiu requires irrigation during establishment and later during fruit development. Irrigation is also required during periods of drought.

Pests Page

Food Uses
The fruit of the abiu tree is edible and considered one of the best of the sapotesdue to having the sweet caramel-like taste of sapodilla with a smoother texture. It is commonly eaten out of hand and, although in Colombia those eating the fruit this way are advised to grease their lips to keep the gummy latex from sticking, this hazard can be avoided by selecting fully ripe fruits and scooping out the flesh with a utensil. The tartness of a bit of added lime juice may enhance the flavor, especially when chilled. The melting sweet pulp of the abiu is also used to flavor ice cream and cut into yogurt for a light and delicious breakfast. The subtlety of the flavor limits its utility in more complex confections and salads. Abiu fruit is a significant source of calcium, phosphorus, vitamin A, and vitamin C. 4

Medicinal Uses **
In Brazil, the pulp, because of its mucilaginous nature, is eaten to relieve coughs, bronchitis and other pulmonary complaints. The latex is given as a vermifuge and purge and is applied on abscesses. 5

Other Uses
The wood is dense and heavy, hard, and valued for construction. 5

General
Abiu from Cape Trib Exotic Fruit Farm in Queensland, Australia ext. link
Abiu Botanical Art


Further Reading
The Abiu from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
One of the Best Sapotaceous Fruits from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
The Gray Abiu from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
A Local Experience with the Abiu from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia


List of Growers and Vendors
Bibliography

1 Crane, Jonathan, H. and  Balerdi, Carlos, F. "Abiu Growing in the Florida Home Landscape." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. One of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Jan. 2006. Revised Nov. 2016. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.
2 "Pouteria caimito." N.d. wikimedia.org. Web. 13 Dec. 2013.
3 Chay, Patricia. "About abiu." wikimedia.org. Queensland Government Primary Industries and Fisheries. Retrieved 14 August 2011. Web. 13 Dec. 2013.
4 Popenoe, Wilson. The "Manual Of Tropical And Subtropical Fruits." 1920. chestofbooks.com. Web. 13 Dec. 2013.
5 Morton, Julia. 1987. "Abiu." Fruits of Warm Climates. hort.purdue.edu. Fruits of Warm Climates. p. 406–408. 1987. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. 
6 Love, Ken and Paull, Robert E. "Abiu." ctahr.hawaii.edu. Hawaii Tropical Fruit Growers, CTAHR Department of Tropoical Plants and Soil Sciences. June 2011. Web. 8 Mar. 2016.
7 Lim, T.K. "Abiu - Pouteria caimito." stcf.org.au. Sub-tropical Fruit Club of Qld Inc. Feb. 2006. Web. 9 Mar. 2016.

Photographs

Fig. 1 Jaitt, Oscar. Abiu cross section. N.d.  fruitlovers.com. Web. 29 Jan. 2014.
Fig. 2 Starr, Forest and Kim. Pouteria caimito (Abiu fruit). Habit at Pali, Waipio, Maui, Hawaii. 2012. flickr.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 9 Mar. 2016.
Fig. 3 Starr, Forest and Kim. Pouteria caimito. (Abiu fruit). Fruit at Pali, Waipio Huelo, Maui, Hawaii. 2014. flickr.com. Under (CC BY 2.0).  Web. 9 Mar. 2016.
Fig. 5 Pouletic. This ripe Abiu fruit is yellow with green speckles and smooth, rounded shape. 2011. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0.0). Web. 9 Mar. 2016.
Fig. 7 Pouletic. The Abiu fruit stem is short and separates flush with the fruit. 2011. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0.0). Web. 10 Mar. 2016.
Fig. 4,11,16,17 Pouteria caimito, Abiu. N.d. TopTropicals Plant Catalog. toptropicals.com. Web. 13 Dec. 2013.
Fig. 8,9,10,13,14,18,19 Aguilar, Reinaldo. Pouteria caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Radlk. (Cultivado). 2012. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Web. 9 Mar. 2016.
Fig. 12 Forest and Kim. Pouteria caimito.  Inflorescense habit at Pali o Waipio Huelo, Maui, Hawaii. 2014. flickr.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 9 Mar. 2016.
Fig. 15 Forest and Kim. Pouteria caimito.  Leafy crown at Pali o Waipio Huelo, Maui, Hawaii. 2014. flickr.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 9 Mar. 2016.
Fig. 17 Forest and Kim. Pouteria caimito. Fruiting habit at Pali o Waipio Huelo, Maui, Hawaii. 2014. flickr.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 9 Mar. 2016.
Fig. 20 Magaldi, Ana. Fruta do Abieiro, Pouteria caimito. 2009. commons.wikimedia.org. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.
Fig. 21 Pouletic. Abiu fruits for sale in August in southern Florida, USA. 2011. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0.0). Web. 10 Mar. 2016.
Fig. 22 Jailson. Bananaquit eating abiu fruit from Blumenau, Brasil. 2007. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas
** Information provided is not intended to be used as a guide for treatment of medical conditions.

Published 4 Dec. 2014 LR. Last update 25 Apr. 2017 LR
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