Pineapple - Annanas comosus  (L.) Merr.
Pineapple whole and halved

Growing Pineapple in the Florida Home Landscape from the University of Florida pdf 8 pages

How to Grow a Pinneaple

Varieties

Fertilizer Recommendations

How to Pick a Pineapple by the color (Video)

USDA Nutrient Content pdf


Fig. 1

 

Other Information

 

Common Names: pineapple and ananas in English, piña in Spanish, nanas in Javanese and Malay, apangdan in Philippino, and yaannat, sapparot, or bonat in Thai.


Family: Bromeliaceae


Origin: Central and South America and the Caribbean

Season: May to September

Damage temp. 27F

PH preference: 5.5-6.0

Light requirement: Sun or partial shade

Description: The pineapple is a herbaceous perennial with long sword-like leaves arranged in a spiral around a central stem and a terminal inflorescence. Leaves may or may not bear marginal spines depending upon variety and cultural practices. Adult plants may be 3 to 6 feet (0.9-1.8 m) high and wide. 1

 

Close-up of flowers emerging

Fig. 2

Close- up of a flower emerging

Inflorescence: The fruit peduncle (stem) and inflorescence develop from the apical growing point. The emergence of the inflorescence is called the red heart stage due to the reddish peduncle bracts at the base of the inflorescence. The inflorescence consists of from 50 to over 200 individual flowers and is capped by a crown of numerous short leaves (up to 150).
The individual flowers are hermaphroditic with three sepals and petals, six stamens and one pistil. The flower petals are white at their bases to violet-blue at their tips. Each flower is surrounded by a hairy bract.
Generally the first flowers open 50 or so days after flower induction and flowering continues for 20 to 40 days. Usually one to 10 flowers open daily beginning around midnight and close the following evening.
Pineapple plants are self-incompatible, meaning pollen from the same variety will not result in seed production and seedy fruit. However, growing several varieties next to each other and flowering simultaneously may result in seedy fruit. To prevent seed formation, either grow only one variety or induce flowering at different times. 1

Forcing the Flowering
 

Inflorescence Inflorescence Inflorescence
Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5
Close-up Texture of the fruit
Fig. 6  Fig. 7 
Pineapple on plant Pineapples
Fig. 8 Fig. 9

 

Fruit:  The fruit of pineapple is a seedless syncarp. A syncarp is a fruit derived from the fusion of many individual flowers into one fruit. The fruit consists of the fused ovaries, bases of sepals and bracts, and cortex of the central core. When fruit are mature (ready to pick), the individual fruitlets flatten and the peel color begins to change from green to yellow progressively from the base to the top of the fruit. Fruit may weigh up to 5 lbs (2.3 kg) or more. Ripe fruit have a yellow peel and pleasant aroma. The pulp is yellow to golden yellow, sweet, and juicy. 1

Propagation: Pineapple are typically propagated from new vegetative growth from the original (mother) plant. There are four types of common planting material: the crown of the fruit; slips and hapas, which arise from the stalk below the fruit; suckers, which arise from the leaf axils of leaves; and ratoons, which arise from underground portions of the stem. The crown consists of the leaves and top 1/2 to 3/4 inches (13-19 mm) of the top of the fruit. Slips originate from the fruit stalk below the fruit and have a characteristic curve to the base of the leaves. Hapas are similar to slips but develop well below the base of the fruit and do not have the characteristic curve at the base of the leaves. Slips and hapas should be left on the peduncle for several weeks after harvesting the fruit in order to develop a usable size for planting.
Suckers develop along the bases of the leaves and also should be left on the plant after fruit harvest to develop usable size for planting. The central stem may also be used to propagate new plants and is usually cut into several pieces. In all cases, the larger the crowns, slips, hapas, suckers, and stem pieces, the more rapid the growth and time to fruiting after planting.
To start new plants, detach the slips, hapas, or crown from the original plant and let them air dry in the shade for a day or two. Plant in clean soil media in the prepared area of the landscape or in containers. 1

 

Suckers arising below the fruit

Fig. 10  

Suckers arising below the fruit

 

Individual pineapple plants may produce up to two fruit (plant crop and ratoon crop). The ratoon (second) fruit is produced from a sucker that arises below the fruit (Fig. 11) and is allowed to grow. After harvesting the first fruit (primary or plant crop), remove all suckers and hapas but one. This will then develop into the ratoon crop. Continuously harvesting and planting suckers, hapas, or crowns from the original plant will result in a continuous supply of new fruit. The time from planting to harvest of the fruit ranges from 18 to 36 months in subtropical climates. 1
 

Protecting your crop

Crop protection

Fig. 11

Rat Damage Protection with a plastic gallon water jug Protection with wire mesh

Fig. 12

Rat or racoon damage

Fig. 13

Using a gallon milk jug

Fig. 14

Using wire mesh

 

 

Raccoons, squirrels, and opposums will sometimes feed on maturing pineapple fruit.

 

Pineapple field in Ghana Pineapples prepared for sale in China

Fig. 15

Pineapple field in Ghana

Fig. 16 

Pineapples prepared for sale in Haikou, Hainan, China

 

Banglam Phoo, Bangkok, Bangkok
Fig. 17

 

 

Further Reading

Home Fruit Production - Pineapple publication from Aggie Horticulture ©

How to Peel and Cut a Pineapple (videos): the Hard Way , the Easy Way or if you happen to own the proper tool... you can still cut it the traditional way 

Ananas comosus from Center for New Crops Purdue University

Pineapple from Julia Morton's book Fruits of Warm Climates

Pineapple from the California Rare Fruit Growers Inc.

Pineapple Botanical Art

 Check our

 

 

Diseases and Pests

 

The pests most likely to attack your plants are mealybugs, scale and mites.  All can be removed by washing the leaves with soapy

water, rinsing after with clear water.

 

Pineapple scale Brown pineapple scale

Fig.18

Pineapple scale Diaspis bromeliae (Kerner)

Fig. 19

Brown Pineapple Scale Melanaspis bromiliae (Leonardi)

Pineapple mealybug Pineapple mealybug nymph(s)

Fig. 20

Pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes Adult(s)

Fig. 21

Pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes Nymph(s)

     

Pineapple plants may be attacked by various mealybugs, scales, and root-feeding grubs of several beetle species. Prior to planting, inspect the pineapple plant (especially the undersides of the lower leaves) for mealybugs and scales; if needed treat for control and then plant.

Mealybugs may attack the leaves and lateral, shallow roots, weakening the plant and decreasing fruit production. Ants commonly "farm" mealybugs and scales by protecting them from natural predators and moving them to new feeding sites. Controlling ants will decrease the likelihood of mealybug infestations. Scales attack the leaves of pineapple plants, which weakens the plant. To prevent scale infestations, use clean soil media to start new plants and inspect plants frequently. 1

Nematodes
Several nematodes may cause significant injury to pineapple roots including root knot (Meloidogyne spp.) and reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) nematodes. Symptoms include plant decline, stunted development and reduced fruit production. Plant only vigorous plant material. If possible inspect the roots for signs of nematode feeding before planting, and discard planting material with signs of infestation. The best control is not to introduce nematode-infested soil or plant material into the pineapple planting area.
1

Reniform Nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis Lindford and Oliveira from the University of Florida pdf 4 pages

 

Diseases

Pineapple root rots may be caused by various Phytophthora and Pythium species which attack and destroy the root system. Symptoms include a reduction in plant growth, development of reddish colored leaves, browning of leaf margins, and plant decline and death. Primary control is to use disease-free planting material and avoid long periods of excessive soil moisture. These rot-causing organisms may spread through the main stem and infect developing fruit as well. 1

Top

 


Bibliography

1 Crane, Jonathan. "Pineapple Growing in the Florida Home Landscape". edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is HS7, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication1975. Reviewed October 2006 and November 2009 and July 2013. Web. 28 Jan. 2014.

 

Photographs

Fig. 1,3,4,5,9 Jackson, Karen. “Pineapple Series”. 2014. growables.org. JPG File.

Fig. 2 A pineapple flower in Iriomote, Japan. 2008. wikipedia.org. Web. 12 Oct. 2014.

Fig. 6 Monteregina, Nicole. Texture, Ananas comosus (Bromeliaceae). 2009. flick.com. Web. 13 Feb. 2015.

Fig. 7 Kwan. Anonas comosus. 2008. naturelovesyou.sg. Web 13 Oct. 2014.

Fig. 8 Leupold-Löwenthal, Markus. Pineapple on its plant, Costa Rica. 2008. wikipedia.org. Web. 12 Oct. 2014.

Fig. 10 Rose, Derek. Pineapple bush/shrub in Kauai, Hawaii. 2007. flick.com. Web. 13 Feb. 2015.

Fig. 11,12,13,14 Robitaille. Liette. “Pineapple Series”. 2014. growables.org. JPG File.

Fig. 15 Hiyori13. "Pineapple field in Ghana". 2005. wikipedia.org. Web. 12 Oct. 2014.

Fig. 16 Frodesiak, anna. Pineapples prepared for sale in Haikou, Hainan, China. 2010. wikipedia.org. Web. 12 Oct. 2014.

Fig. 17 Rarcliff, Trey. al-pineapple. 2006. flick.com. Web. 13 Feb. 2015.

Fig. 18,19,20,21 Pineapple Mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes Adult(s)Pineapple Mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes Nymph(s), Pineapple Scale. Diaspis bromeliae (Kerner) and Brown Pineapple Acale Melanaspis bromiliae (Leonardi). bugwood.org. United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs Archive, USDA Agricultural Research Service. 5 Dec. 2006. Last updated 4 May 2010. Web. 28 Jan. 2014.

Published 29 Dec. 2014 LR. Updated 13 Feb. 2015 LR

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