Pineapple - Annanas comosus (L.) Merr.
Pineapple whole and halved
Fig. 1 magnifying glass

Close-up
Fig. 2 magnifying glass
Almost ripe

Flower of pineapple (Ananas comosus) at Iriomote. Okinawa, Japan
Fig. 3 magnifying glass
Flower of pineapple (Ananas comosus) at Iriomote. Okinawa, Japan

Inflorescence
Fig. 4

Inflorescence
Fig. 5

Inflorescence
Fig. 6

Texture of the fruit
Fig. 7

Pineapple on plant
Fig. 8 magnifying glass

Rat or racoon damage
Fig. 9 magnifying glass
Rat or racoon damage

Protection with wire mesh
Fig. 10 magnifying glass
Protection with wire mesh against critters

Pineapple field in Ghana
Fig. 11 magnifying glass
Pineapple field in Ghana

Pineapples prepared for sale in China
Fig. 20 magnifying glass
Pineapples prepared for sale in China

Banglam Phoo, Bangkok, Bangkok
Fig. 21 magnifying glass
Banglam Phoo, Bangkok, Bangkok

Marché de Saint-Paul, La Réunion
Fig. 22 magnifying glass
Marché de Saint-Paul, La Réunion

The Big Pineapple, between Port Alfred and Bathurst on the R67 in the Eastern Cape, South Africa
Fig. 23 magnifying glass
The Big Pineapple, between Port Alfred and Bathurst on the R67 in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

A young Innovator passionate about agriculture and discovery. Founded Agrotourism in Guinea
Fig. 24 magnifying glass
A young Innovator passionate about agriculture and discovery. Founded Agrotourism in Guinea

Dunmore Pineapple, near Falkirk, Scotland
Fig. 25 magnifying glass
Dunmore Pineapple, near Falkirk, Scotland


Scientific name
Annanas comosus (L.) Merr.
Pronunciation
uh-NAN-us ko-MO-sus
Common names
Pineapple and ananas in English, piña in Spanish, nanas in Javanese and Malay, apangdan in Philippino, and yaannat, sapparot, or bonat in Thai
Synonyms
Ananas acostae C. Commelijn; A. argentata J.C.Wendl. ex Schult. & Schult.f.; A. aurata J.C.Wendl. ex Schult. & Schult.f.; A. bracteatus Baker; A. bracteatus var. hondurensis Bertoni; A. bracteatus var. paraguayensis Bertoni; A. coccineus Descourt.; A. comosus var. comosus ; A. comosus f. sativus (Schult. & Schult.f.) Mez; A. comosus var. variegatus (Lowe) Moldenke; A. debilis Schult. & Schult.f.; A. maxima Schult. & Schult.f.; A. monstrosus (Carrière) L.B.Sm.; A. ovatus Mill.; A. pancheanus André; A. penangensis Baker; A. porteanus Veitch ex K.Koch; A. pyramidalis Mill.; A. sativa Lindl.; A. sativus Schult. & Schult.f.; A. sativus var. hispanorum Bertoni; A. sativus var. muricatus Mez; A. sativus var. pyramidalis Bertoni; A. sativus var. variegatus Lowe; A. sativus var. viridis (Mill.) Bertoni; A. serotinus Mill.; A. viridis Mill.; Ananassa ananas (L.) H.Karst.; A. debilis Lindl.; A. monstrosa Carrière; A. porteana (Veitch ex K.Koch) Carrière; A. sativa (Schult. & Schult.f.) Lindl. ex Beer; Bromelia ananas L.; B. ananas Willd.; B. ananas var. prolifera F.Cuvier; B. communis Lam.; B. comosa L.; B. mai-pouri Perrier; B. pigna Perrier; B. rubra Schult. & Schult.f.; B. violacea Schult. & Schult.f.; B. viridis (Mill.) Schult. & Schult.f.; Distiacanthus communis (Lam.) Rojas Acosta 5
Relatives
Bromiliads, Spanish moss, and tillandsia 1
Family
Bromeliaceae
Origin
Central and South America and the Caribbean
USDA hardiness zones
10 through 11
Uses
Specimen; fruit; ground cover; border; accent; culinary 2
Height
3-6 ft (0.9-1.8 m)
Spread
3-6 ft (0.9-1.8 m)
Plant habit
Perennial; herbaceous
Growth rate
Slow
Trunk/bark/branches
Usually with one stem/trunk
Leaves
Most emerge from the soil, usually without a stem; spiny, linear, parallel, evergreen 2
Flower
Red, summer flowering
Fruit
Seedless syncarp; oval; 6-12 in. (15.2-30.5 cm); fleshy, yellow, sweet 2
Season
May to September
USDA Nutrient Content pdf
Light requirement
Plant grows in part shade/part sun 2
Soil tolerances
Slightly alkaline; clay; sand; acidic; loam 2
PH preference
4.5-6.5
Drought tolerance
High
Flooding tolerance
Not very tolerant of excessively or continuously wet or flooded soil conditions 1
Air salt tolerance
Wind-borne salt spray results in blackish spots near the the tips of leaves 1
Cold tolerance
28°F (-2.0°C)
Plant spacing
30-60 in. (76.2-152.4 cm)
Roots
Usually not a problem 2
Invasive potential *
Not known to be invasive 2
Pest/disease resistance
Mites, scales, and mealy-bugs can be serious pest problems; no diseases are of major
concern 2
Raccoons, squirrels, and opposums will sometimes feed on maturing pineapple fruit
Known hazard
The spines along leaf margins and the stiff point at the leaf apex can cause mechanical injury 3
When unripe, the pineapple is not only inedible but poisonous, irritating the throat and acting as a drastic purgative. Excessive consumption of pineapple cores has caused the formation of fiber balls (bezoars) in the digestive tract. 4



Reading Material
Growing Pineapple in the Florida Home Landscape from the University of Florida pdf 8 pages
Ananas comosus Pineapple from the University of Florida pdf
Ananas comosus from Center for New Crops Purdue University
Pineapple from Julia Morton's book Fruits of Warm Climates
Pineapple from the California Rare Fruit Growers Inc.



Origin

Pineapple has apparently been cultivated by indigenous people of the tropical Americas and the Caribbean Region for thousands of years. New World explorers then distributed pineapple during the 1500s to 1700s to new areas including Europe, Africa, and Asia. The commercial export trade began during early 19th century from the West Indies. This led to further commercial development of in the Caribbean during the mid-19th century. However, with the improvement in refrigerated sea transportation by the end of the 19th century, production shifted to Hawaii, Asia, and Africa. In the U.S., Puerto Rico and Hawaii have moderately large and important industries. Pineapples are not grown commercially in Florida but are common dooryard yard plants in warm locations throughout the state. The first recorded introduction of pineapple into Florida was in 1860. 1

Description
The pineapple is a herbaceous perennial with long sword-like leaves arranged in a spiral around a central stem and a terminal inflorescence. Leaves may or may not bear marginal spines depending upon variety and cultural practices. Adult plants may be 3 to 6 feet (0.9-1.8 m) high and wide. 1

Leaves
The leaves are sessile and whorled around a central stem. They increase in size toward the top of the plant. Individual leaves range in length from 2 to 8 inches long (5-20 cm) for new plants and up to slightly more than 5 feet long (1.5 m) on mature, healthy plants. Leaves taper progressively toward the tip and end in a sharp point. Leaves may or may not have spines along their edges depending upon variety and growing conditions. The leaves are semi-rigid and allow the plant to collect water at the base of the leaves, where aerial roots may absorb water and nutrients. Once the plant has produced between 70 and 80 leaves it is ready to flower. 1

Flowers
The fruit peduncle (stem) and inflorescence develop from the apical growing point. The emergence of the inflorescence is called the red heart stage due to the reddish peduncle bracts at the base of the inflorescence. The inflorescence consists of from 50 to over 200 individual flowers and is capped by a crown of numerous short leaves (up to 150).
The individual flowers are hermaphroditic with three sepals and petals, six stamens and one pistil. The flower petals are white at their bases to violet-blue at their tips. Each flower is surrounded by a hairy bract.
Generally the first flowers open 50 or so days after flower induction and flowering continues for 20 to 40 days. Usually one to 10 flowers open daily beginning around midnight and close the following evening
Pineapple plants are self-incompatible, meaning pollen from the same variety will not result in seed production and seedy fruit. However, growing several varieties next to each other and flowering simultaneously may result in seedy fruit. To prevent seed formation, either grow only one variety or induce flowering at different times. 1

Forcing a Pineapple to Flower

Fruit
The fruit of pineapple is a seedless syncarp. A syncarp is a fruit derived from the fusion of many individual flowers into one fruit (Fig. 3. The fruit consists of the fused ovaries, bases of sepals and bracts, and cortex of the central core. When fruit are mature (ready to pick), the individual fruitlets flatten and the peel color begins to change from green to yellow progressively from the base to the top of the fruit. Fruit may weigh up to 5 lbs (2.3 kg) or more. Ripe fruit have a yellow peel and pleasant aroma. The pulp is yellow to golden yellow, sweet, and juicy. 1

Varieties Page

Harvesting
The time from planting to harvest depends upon the cultivar, cultural practices, and temperature; it ranges from 18 to 24 months. 1

Propagation Page

Planting
Pineapple plants grow best in moderately fertile, sandy loam soils of neutral to mildly acid pH. Plants will grow satisfactorily in sandy and calcareous soils with attention to watering and fertilizer. Pineapple should be grown in well-drained soils and areas of the landscape that do not flood. 1

How to Grow a Pinneaple

Fertilizing
Dry fertilizer mixtures containing 6 to 10% nitrogen (N), 6 to 10% available phosphoric acid (P), 6 to 10% potash (K), and 4 to 6% magnesium (Mg) give satisfactory results with pineapple plants. Pineapple plants may also be fertilized foliarly with mild solutions of nutrient mixes that include NPK and Mg. Foliar sprays containing micronutrients such as zinc and manganese (iron is also sometimes a component) should be applied 2 to 3 times a year during the warm season. 1

Fertilizer Recommendations from the University of Florida

Irrigation
Pineapple plants should be watered during extended dry periods for best plant growth and fruit production. 1

Pest Page

Disease Page

Food Uses
Pineapple may be used fresh, juiced, dried, made into candies, and incorporated into cooked dishes and desserts. 1
The pineapple does not lend itself well to freezing, as it tends to develop off flavors. 4

Selecting, Preparing and Canning: Pineapple from the Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, UF/IFAS Extension pdf
How to Pick a Pineapple by the color (Video)
How to Peel and Cut a Pineapple (videos): the Hard Way , the Easy Way or if you happen to own the proper tool... you can still cut it the traditional way
Using a Pineapple cutter

Pineapple tarte tatin Pineapple Tarts, Singapore Pineapple salsa
Fig. 12 magnifying glass Fig. 13 magnifying glass Fig. 14 magnifying glass
Candied, Crystallized Pineapple וסות אננס מיובש במרכול בירו. Close-up view of a Hawaiian pan pizza Pineapple juice Piña colada served in a pineapple at the Carnival of Santa Marta Acatitla, Iztapalapa, Mexico City
Fig. 15 magnifying glass Fig. 16 magnifying glass Fig. 17 magnifying glass Fig. 18 magnifying glass Fig. 19 magnifying glass

Fig. 12. Pineapple tarte tatin
Fig. 13. Pineapple tarts, Singapore
Fig. 14. Pineapple salsa by Suzanne Haley
Fig. 15. Candied, Crystallized Pineapple
Fig. 16. וסות אננס מיובש במרכול בירו. Dried pineapple
Fig. 17. Close-up view of a Hawaiian pan pizza
Fig. 18. Pineapple juice
Fig. 19. Piña colada served in a pineapple at the Carnival of Santa Marta Acatitla, Iztapalapa, Mexico City

Folk Medicinal Uses **
Pineapple juice is taken as a diuretic and to expedite labor, also as a gargle in cases of sore throat and as an antidote for seasickness. The flesh of very young (toxic) fruits is deliberately ingested to achieve abortion (a little with honey on 3 successive mornings); also to expel intestinal worms; and as a drastic treatment for venereal diseases. In Africa the dried, powdered root is a remedy for edema. The crushed rind is applied on fractures and the rind decoction with rosemary is applied on hemorrhoids. Indians in Panama use the leaf juice as a purgative, emmenagogue and vermifuge. 4

Other Uses
The pineapple fruit with crown intact is often used as a decoration and there are variegated forms of the plant universally grown for their showiness indoors or out. Since 1963, thousands of potted, ethylene treated pineapple plants with fruits have been shipped annually from southern Florida to northern cities as indoor ornamentals. 4
Pineapple juice has been employed for cleaning machete and knife blades and, with sand, for scrubbing boat decks. 4  

General
Pineapple Plantation in Hawaii
Pineapple plants are well adapted to planting in a container. 1

Stánek s ananasy Pineapple vendors along the road from Huambo to Quibala in Angola Waterfront Park (Charleston) Ananas dupliqué (République centrafricaine)
Fig. 26 magnifying glass Fig. 27 magnifying glass Fig. 28 magnifying glass Fig. 29 magnifying glass

Fig. 26. Stánek s ananasy, Guatemala
Fig. 27. Pineapple vendors along the road from Huambo to Quibala in Angola
Fig. 28. Waterfront Park (Charleston)
Fig. 29. Ananas dupliqué, République centrafricaine

Further Reading
Home Fruit Production - Pineapple publication from Aggie Horticulture ®
Pineapple Cultivation in Hawaii from the University of Hawaii pdf 8 pages
Pineapple: Postharvest Quality Maintenance Guidelines from the University of Hawaii and National Chung-Hsing University pdf 6 pages
The Pineapple from the Tropical Fruit News magazine of the Miami Rare Fruit Council International
Pineapple Botanical Art


List of Growers and Vendors
Bibliography

1 Crane, Jonathan. "Pineapple Growing in the Florida Home Landscape". edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is HS7, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication 1975. Re-written Oct. 2006. Revised November 2016. Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
2 Guilman, Edward F. "Ananas comosus Pineapple." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is FPS039, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date September 1999. Reviewed February 2014. Web. 17 Dec. 2016.
3 Boning, Charles R. Florida's Best Fruiting Plants- Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Pineapple Press, Inc. sarasota, Florida. Print.
4 Morton, J. "Pineapple." hort.purdue.edu. Fruits of Warm Climates, p. 18-28. 1987. Web. 13 Oct. 2014.
"Ananas comosus (L.) Merr synonyms." The Plant List (2010). Version 1. theplantlist.org. Web. 27 Feb. 2017.

Photographs

Fig. 1,4,5,6 Jackson, Karen. “Pineapple Series”. 2014. growables.org. JPG File.
Fig. 2 Monteregina, Nicole. Texture, Ananas comosus (Bromeliaceae). 2009. flick.com. Web. 13 Feb. 2015.
Fig. 3 A pineapple flower in Iriomote, Japan. 2008. wikipedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0) and GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2. Web. 12 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 7 Kwan. Anonas comosus. 2008. naturelovesyou.sg. Web 13 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 8 Leupold-Löwenthal, Markus. Pineapple on its plant, Costa Rica. 2008. wikipedia.org. Web. 12 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 10 Rose, Derek. Pineapple bush/shrub in Kauai, Hawaii. 2007. flick.com. Web. 13 Feb. 2015.
Fig. 9,10 Robitaille. Liette. “Pineapple Series”. 2014. growables.org. JPG File.
Fig. 11 Hiyori13. "Pineapple field in Ghana". 2005. wikipedia.org. Web. 12 Oct. 2014. Fig. 12 stu_spivack. Pineapple tarte tatin. 2009. flick.com. Under  (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 13 Chin. Pineapple Tarts, Singapore. 2006. flick.com. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 14 Haley J. Pineapple Salsa. 2009.  flick.com. Under (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 15 Kess, David Adam. Candied, Crystallized Pineapple. 2016. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 16 Dried pineapple. יע  2012. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0).  Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 17 @joefoodie. Close-up view of a Hawaiian pan pizza. 2009. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 18 Binu, Auguste. Pineapple juice. 2014. wikipedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0). Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 19 lejandroLinaresGarcia . Piña colada served in a pineapple at the Carnival of Santa Marta Acatitla, Iztapalapa, Mexico City. 2013. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0). 2012. Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 20 Frodesiak, anna. Pineapples prepared for sale in Haikou, Hainan, China. 2010. wikipedia.org. Web. 12 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 21 Rarcliff, Trey. al-pineapple. 2006. flick.com. Web. 13 Feb. 2015. Fig. 22 Bouba. Marché de Saint-Paul, La Réunion. 2005. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 2.5). Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 23 NJR ZA. The Big Pineapple, between Port Alfred and Bathurst on the R67 in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. 2009. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0). Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 24 Daring Innovator. A young Innovator passionate about agriculture and discovery. Founded Agrotourism in Guinea. 2014. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 25 Otter. Dunmore Pineapple, near Falkirk, Scotland. 2009. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0). 2012. Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 26 Luisfi. Stánek s ananasy. 2010. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0). Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 27 jlrsousa. Pineapple vendors along the road from Huambo to Quibala in Angola. 2008. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 28 rolle, Elisa. Waterfront Park (Charleston). 2013. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
Fig. 29 Selengoumadavid. Ananas dupliqué (République centrafricaine). 2012. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 27 Feb. 2017.

UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas
** Information provided is not intended to be used as a guide for treatment of medical conditions.

Published 29 Dec. 2014 LR. Last update 27 Feb. 2017 LR
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