|Pineapple - Annanas comosus (L.) Merr.|
Common Names: pineapple and ananas in English, piña in Spanish, nanas in Javanese and Malay, apangdan in Philippino, and yaannat, sapparot, or bonat in Thai.
Season: May to September
Damage temp. 27F
PH preference: 5.5-6.0
Light requirement: Sun or partial shade
Description: The pineapple is a herbaceous perennial with long sword-like leaves arranged in a spiral around a central stem and a terminal inflorescence. Leaves may or may not bear marginal spines depending upon variety and cultural practices. Adult plants may be 3 to 6 feet (0.9-1.8 m) high and wide. 1
Close- up of a flower emerging
fruit peduncle (stem) and inflorescence develop from the apical growing
point. The emergence of the inflorescence is called the red heart stage
due to the reddish peduncle bracts at the base of the inflorescence.
The inflorescence consists of from 50 to over 200 individual flowers
and is capped by a crown of numerous short leaves (up to 150).
The fruit of pineapple is a seedless syncarp. A syncarp is a fruit
derived from the fusion of many individual flowers into one fruit. The
fruit consists of the fused ovaries, bases of sepals and bracts, and
cortex of the central core. When fruit are mature (ready to pick), the
individual fruitlets flatten and the peel color begins to change from
green to yellow progressively from the base to the top of the fruit.
Fruit may weigh up to 5 lbs (2.3 kg) or more. Ripe fruit have a yellow
peel and pleasant aroma. The pulp is yellow to golden yellow, sweet,
and juicy. 1
pineapple plants may produce up to two fruit (plant crop and ratoon
crop). The ratoon (second) fruit is produced from a sucker that arises
below the fruit (Fig. 11) and is allowed to grow. After harvesting the
first fruit (primary or plant crop), remove all suckers and hapas but
one. This will then develop into the ratoon crop. Continuously
harvesting and planting suckers, hapas, or crowns from the original
plant will result in a continuous supply of new fruit. The time from
planting to harvest of the fruit ranges from 18 to 36 months in
subtropical climates. 1
Protecting your crop
Raccoons, squirrels, and opposums will sometimes feed on maturing pineapple fruit.
Home Fruit Production - Pineapple publication from Aggie Horticulture ©
Ananas comosus from Center for New Crops Purdue University
Pineapple from Julia Morton's book Fruits of Warm Climates
Pineapple from the California Rare Fruit Growers Inc.
Diseases and Pests
The pests most likely to attack your plants are mealybugs, scale and mites. All can be removed by washing the leaves with soapy
water, rinsing after with clear water.
Pineapple plants may be attacked by various mealybugs, scales, and root-feeding grubs of several beetle species. Prior to planting, inspect the pineapple plant (especially the undersides of the lower leaves) for mealybugs and scales; if needed treat for control and then plant.
Mealybugs may attack the leaves and lateral, shallow roots, weakening the plant and decreasing fruit production. Ants commonly "farm" mealybugs and scales by protecting them from natural predators and moving them to new feeding sites. Controlling ants will decrease the likelihood of mealybug infestations. Scales attack the leaves of pineapple plants, which weakens the plant. To prevent scale infestations, use clean soil media to start new plants and inspect plants frequently. 1
Pineapple root rots may be caused by various Phytophthora and Pythium species which attack and destroy the root system. Symptoms include a reduction in plant growth, development of reddish colored leaves, browning of leaf margins, and plant decline and death. Primary control is to use disease-free planting material and avoid long periods of excessive soil moisture. These rot-causing organisms may spread through the main stem and infect developing fruit as well. 1
1 Crane, Jonathan. "Pineapple Growing in the Florida Home Landscape". edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is HS7, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication1975. Reviewed October 2006 and November 2009 and July 2013. Web. 28 Jan. 2014.
Fig. 1,3,4,5,9 Jackson, Karen. “Pineapple Series”. 2014. growables.org. JPG File.
Fig. 2 A pineapple flower in Iriomote, Japan. 2008. wikipedia.org. Web. 12 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 6 Monteregina, Nicole. Texture, Ananas comosus (Bromeliaceae). 2009. flick.com. Web. 13 Feb. 2015.
Fig. 7 Kwan. Anonas comosus. 2008. naturelovesyou.sg. Web 13 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 8 Leupold-Löwenthal, Markus. Pineapple on its plant, Costa Rica. 2008. wikipedia.org. Web. 12 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 10 Rose, Derek. Pineapple bush/shrub in Kauai, Hawaii. 2007. flick.com. Web. 13 Feb. 2015.
Fig. 11,12,13,14 Robitaille. Liette. “Pineapple Series”. 2014. growables.org. JPG File.
Fig. 15 Hiyori13. "Pineapple field in Ghana". 2005. wikipedia.org. Web. 12 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 16 Frodesiak, anna. Pineapples prepared for sale in Haikou, Hainan, China. 2010. wikipedia.org. Web. 12 Oct. 2014.
Fig. 17 Rarcliff, Trey. al-pineapple. 2006. flick.com. Web. 13 Feb. 2015.
Fig. 18,19,20,21 Pineapple Mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes Adult(s), Pineapple Mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes Nymph(s), Pineapple Scale. Diaspis bromeliae (Kerner) and Brown Pineapple Acale Melanaspis bromiliae (Leonardi). bugwood.org.
United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs Archive,
USDA Agricultural Research Service. 5 Dec. 2006. Last updated 4 May
2010. Web. 28 Jan. 2014.
Published 29 Dec. 2014 LR. Updated 13 Feb. 2015 LR