Gamboge, False mangosteen - Garcinia xanthochymus Hook. f. ex T. Anderson
Gamboge fruit
Fig. 1 
Gamboge fruit

Garcinia xanthochymus
Fig. 2 
Garcinia xanthochymus

Flower buds
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Flower buds

Leaves
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Leaves

Unripe fruit
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Unripe fruit

Fruit habit
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Fruit habit

Fruit habit
Fig. 7
Fruit habit

Tree habit
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Tree habit

Growth habit
Fig. 9
Growth habit

Tree
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Tree

Bark
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Bark
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Scientific name
Garcinia xanthochymus Hook. f. ex T. Anderson
Pronunciation
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Common names
Mysore gamboge, yellow mangosteen, eggtree, gamboge tree, sour mangosteen, Himalayan Garcinia and false mangosteen; in Brazil, gamboge, mangostao-amarelo, falso-mangostin; in India, Cochin Goraka
Synonyms
Xanthochymus pictorius Roxb., Garcinia tinctoria, Garcinia dulcis (misapplied)
Relatives
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Family
Clusiaceae (alt Guttiferae)
Origin
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USDA hardiness zones
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Uses
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Height
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Spread
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Crown
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Plant habit
Tree: dense pyramidal crown
Growth rate
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Longevity
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Trunk/bark/branches
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Pruning requirement
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Leaf
leathery, oblong to lance shaped, hang down from the branches
Flower
small, greenish white, male and hermaphrodite in dense clusters
Fruit
round, yellow orange, yellow pulp, 1-3 seeds
Season
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USDA Nutrient Content
Light requirement
sun or part shade
Soil tolerances
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PH preference
prefers 6-7.5, tolerates 5.5-8
Drought tolerance
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Aerosol salt tolerance
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Soil salt tolerance
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Cold tolerance
Damage temp. harm 32°F, Kill 28°F (°C)
Plant spacing
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Roots
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Invasive potential *
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Pest resistance
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Known hazard
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Reading Material

Sorting Garcinia Names from the Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database, University of Melbourne, Australia ext. link



Origin

There are over 240 Garcinia species, mostly from southeast Asia. Garcinia species from the Americas were once classified as Rheedia, but now all are considered Garcinia.

Garcinia xanthochymus is native to northern India. The genus Garcinia contains 240 species with a center of diversity in the Old World. This species was introduced into Hawaii by Albert Jaeger in 1900. 1

Garcinia xanthochymus originated probably from India and Burma. It occurs in the wild, growing in the hills of South India and can also be found widely distributed in the hill forests of the Eastern Himalayas and hence the common name ‘Himalayan Garcinia'.

The leaves are large (15.4-30.5 cm in length) and leathery and are oblong to lance shaped. The small flowers (1.3 cm in diameter) are born in a dense cluster of 4-10 flowers and are greenish white in color. The flowers are unisexual meaning that the ovule and pollen producing structures are borne on separate flowers and in this species are borne on different trees. The pollen producing flowers have five petals and many stamens on which the pollen is produced that are arranged in bundles each containing five stamens. The ovule producing flowers also have stamens but they are non-functional or sterile therefore they produce no pollen. The bright yellow-orange fruit is almost round and is 5 cm to 8.9 cm in diameter. The fleshy fruit usually contains 5 seeds that are surrounded by a yellow pulp that is edible. 2
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Description
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Flowers
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Fruit
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Varieties
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Harvesting
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Pollination
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Propagation
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Planting
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Pruning
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Fertilizing
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Irrigation
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Pests
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Diseases
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Food Uses
Garcinia xanthochymus is cultivated extensively in Southeast Asia where the fruit is made into preserves, jams, and curries. The dried fruit sap is called gamboge and provides a dye that is used in watercolor paints.
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Medicinal Uses **
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Other Uses
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General
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Further Reading
Gamboge Botanical Art
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List of Growers and Vendors
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Bibliography

1 Staples, G. W. and D. R. Herbst. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and other tropical places. Honolulu, Hawai’i. Bishop Museum Press. 2005. Print.
Lorenzi, Harri, Bacher, Luis, Lacerda, Marco and Sartori, Sergio. Brazillian Fruits & Cultivated Exotics (for consuming in natura). Brazil. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA. 2006. Print.

Photographs

Fig. 1 Jaitt, Oscar. Garcinia xanthochymus, False Mangosteen. N.d. fruitlovers.com. Web. 31 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 2 Starr, Forest and Kim. Garcinia xanthochymus (Yellow mangosteen, false mangosteen, gourka) Fruit in half. 2012. Kahanu Gardens, Hana, Maui. starrenvironmental.com. Web. 31 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 3 jayeshpatil912. Flowers of Garcinia xanthochymus from Clusiaceae. 2012. Again, native to India but rarely seen in cultivation. commons.wikimedia.org. Web. 30 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 4,7,10,11 Kwan. Garcinia xanthochymus. 2009. natureloveyou.sq. Web. 31 Jan. 2015. 
Fig. 5 Ghosh, Asit K. Thaumaturgist. Unripe fruits are hanging from a False Mangosteen aka Gamboge (Garcinia xanthochymus / Clusiaceae) tree in the Mounts Botanical Garden. 2010. West Palm Beach, Florida. commons.wikimedia.org. Web. 30 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 6,9 Vinayaraj. Garcinia tinctoria. 2012. commons.wikimedia.org. Web. 30 Jan. 2015. Fig. 8 Starr, Forest and Kim. Garcinia xanthochymus (Yellow mangosteen, false mangosteen, gourka). 2009. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui. starrenvironmental.com. Web. 31 Jan. 2015.

UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas
** Information provided is not intended to be used as a guide for treatment of medical conditions.

Published 30 Jan. 2015 LR. Last updated 31 Jan. 2015 LR
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