Gamboge, False mangosteen - Garcinia xanthochymus Hook. f. ex T. Anderson
Gamboge fruit
Fig. 1 
Gamboge fruit

Garcinia xanthochymus (Yellow mangosteen, false mangosteen, gourka). Leaves. Hamana Pl Haiku, Maui, Hawaii
Fig. 2 
Garcinia xanthochymus (Yellow mangosteen, false mangosteen, gourka). Fruit. Hamana Pl Haiku, Maui, Hawaii

G. xanthochymus (Yellow mangosteen, false mangosteen, gourka). Seed nibbled on. Kahanu Gardens Hana, Maui, Hawaii
Fig. 3 
G. xanthochymus (Yellow mangosteen, false mangosteen, gourka). Seed nibbled on. Kahanu Gardens Hana, Maui, Hawaii

Garcinia xanthochymus in Jardín de Aclimatación de la Orotava
Fig. 4
G. xanthochymus in Jardín de Aclimatación de la Orotava

Garcinia xanthochymus, leaves and stalk
Fig. 5
Glossy, leathery leaves opposite, the stalks meet in a V shaped node, slightly bulky and clasping the stem. The stem is longitudinally striated and older ones have fissures

Flower buds
Fig. 10
Flowers of G. xanthochymus from Clusiaceae. Native to India but rarely seen in cultivation.

Garcinia xanthochymus fruit forming
Fig. 11
G. xanthochymus fruit forming

Fruit habit
Fig. 12
Unripe fruits are hanging from a False Mangosteen aka Gamboge (G. xanthochymus / Clusiaceae) tree in the Mounts Botanical Garden, West Palm Beach, Florida.

Garcinia xanthochymus fruit, persistent staminode column
Fig. 13
G. xanthochymus fruit, persistent staminode column...

Garcinia xanthochymus
Fig. 20

Tree habit
Fig. 21
G. xanthochymus (Yellow mangosteen, false mangosteen, gourka). Tree habit.

Growth habit
Fig. 22
Growth habit

Tree
Fig. 23
Tree

Garcinia xanthochymus, Thane, India
Fig. 24
G. xanthochymus, Thane, India

Bark
Fig. 25
Bark


Scientific name
Garcinia xanthochymus Hook. f. ex T. Anderson
Common names
Mysore gamboge, yellow mangosteen, eggtree, gamboge tree, sour mangosteen, Himalayan garcinia and false mangosteen; in Brazil: gamboge, mangostao-amarelo, falso-mangostin; in India: Cochin Goraka
Synonyms
Garcinia pictoria (Roxb.) Dunn [Illegitimate]; G. pictoria (Roxb.) Engl.; G. roxburghii Kurz [Illegitimate]; G. tinctoria (DC.) W.Wight; G. tinctoria (DC.) Dunn; Stalagmitis pictoria G.Don ; Xanthochymus pictorius Roxb.; X. tinctorius DC. 6
Family
Clusiaceae (alt Guttiferae)
Origin
Northern India1
Uses
Fruit
Height
26-33 ft (8-10 m) tall, 6-18 in. (15-45 cm) in diam. 5
Crown
Dense pyramidal crown 2
Plant habit
Extraordinary pyramidal shaped canopy 3
Trunk/bark/branches
Bark gray-brown 5; hard, heavy, coarse-grained wood with many knots 3
Leaves
Evergreen; leathery; oblong to lance shaped; hang down from the branches 2
Flowers
Small, greenish white, male and androgynous: on axillary fascicles 2
Fruit
Oblong or ovoid berry type; smooth; yellow; 1-3 seeds; succulent pulp, sweet with little
acidity 2
Season
March-May
Light requirement
Sun or part shade
PH preference
prefers 6-7.5, tolerates 5.5-8
Cold tolerance
Damage temp. 32 °F (0 °C); killed 28 °F (-2 °C)
Invasive potential *
None reported



Reading Material

Sorting Garcinia Names from the Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database, University of Melbourne, Australia ext. link



Origin

There are over 240 Garcinia species, mostly from southeast Asia. Garcinia species from the Americas were once classified as Rheedia, but now all are considered Garcinia.

Garcinia xanthochymus is native to northern India. The genus Garcinia contains 240 species with a center of diversity in the Old World. This species was introduced into Hawaii by Albert Jaeger in 1900. 1

Garcinia xanthochymus originated probably from India and Burma. It occurs in the wild, growing in the hills of South India and can also be found widely distributed in the hill forests of the Eastern Himalayas and hence the common name ‘Himalayan garcinia'.

Description
Gamboge is a wide-spreading species with enormous, drooping leaves and globose, apple-sized, golden yellow fruit. 3

Leaves/branches
Branches numerous, slender, decussate, horizontal but usually distally pendulous, twigs distinctly angled (Fig. ). Petiole robust, V-shaped and somewhat clasping at base, 1.5–2.5 cm, angled and transversely wrinkled when dry, those of terminal 1 or 2 pairs on branchlet usually rose-colored ; leaf blade shiny, elliptic or oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 20–34 × 6–12 cm, thickly leathery, mid vein robust, raised on both surfaces; veins dense, to 35–40 pairs, near margin arching and anastomosing; tertiary veins and veinlets conspicuous, base  broadly cuneate, margin involute, apex acute to obtuse, rarely acuminate. Corymbose cyme 5–10 flowered, arising from leafless axils; peduncle 6–12 mm. Pedicels 1.8–3 cm. 5

Garcinia xanthochymus (Yellow mangosteen, false mangosteen, gourka). Leaves. Hamana Pl Haiku, Maui, HawaiiGarcinia xanthochymus in Jardín de Aclimatación de la OrotavaGarcinia xanthochymus. 2014
Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8
Garcinia xanthochymus. 2014
Fig. 9

Fig. 6. Garcinia xanthochymus (Yellow mangosteen, false mangosteen, gourka). Leaves. Hamana Pl Haiku, Maui, Hawaii
Fig. 7. G. xanthochymus in Jardín de Aclimatación de la Orotava, leaf growth habit

Flowers
The flowers are unisexual meaning that the ovule and pollen producing structures are borne on separate flowers and in this species are borne on different trees. The pollen producing flowers have five petals and many stamens on which the pollen is produced that are arranged in bundles each containing five stamens. The ovule producing flowers also have stamens but they are non-functional or sterile therefore they produce no pollen. 1

Fruit
The fruit is golden yellow, globose with a stout stalk, five persistent sepals and a woody
point obliquely placed on the lower side, which is the remnant of the coherent bundle of staminodes. 5
Seeds, the largest 3cm, others frequently seen undeveloped; are embedded in the flesh and attached to it by a thin fibrous mesh, the endocarp which can be easily pulled away. The seed coat itself is smooth glossy brown, patterned. Upon drying it peels off like a peanut skin to reveal a white firm seed. (Fig. ) 4

Garcinia xanthochymus. 2014Fruit habitGarcinia xanthochymus. 2015
Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16
Garcinia xanthochymus, unripe and ripe fruitGarcinia xanthochymus. 2016Garcinia xanthochymus. 2016
Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19

Propagation
By seed and by grafting. 2

Food Uses
Garcinia xanthochymus is cultivated extensively in Southeast Asia where the fruit is made into preserves, jams, and curries.
In India, young leaves are considered edible and eaten raw, cooked as spinach or added to a curry. 3

Other Uses
Renowed for its sap, which, when tapped, yields a yellow pigment known as 'gamboge' that is used in making watercolour pain and for dyeing Buddhist priests robes. This speciess is not the only Garcinia to provide this improtant pigment. 3


Further Reading
Gamboge Botanical Art


List of Growers and Vendors
Bibliography

1 Staples, G. W. and D. R. Herbst. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and other tropical places. Honolulu, Hawai’i, Bishop Museum Press, 2005, ntbg.org/database/plants/. Accessed 23 June 2017.
Lorenzi, Harri, Bacher, Luis, Lacerda, Marco and Sartori, Sergio. Brazillian Fruits & Cultivated Exotics (for consuming in natura). Brazil. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA. 2006. pp. 379.
3 Barwick, Margaret. Tropical & Subtropical Trees. A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide. London, Thames & Hudson Ltd. 2004.
4 Florimagix. "Garcinia xanthochymus." commons.wikimedia.org. Web. 22 June 2017.
5 Xiwen, Li, et al. Flora of China. Clusiaceae, Garcinia xanthochymus, Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis., Vol. 13. 2007, flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/. Accessed 23 June 2017.
6 "Garcinia xanthochymus synonyms." The Plant List (2010). Version 1. theplantlist.org. Web. 22 June 2017.

Photographs

Fig. 1 Jaitt, Oscar. Garcinia xanthochymus, False Mangosteen. N.d. fruitlovers.com. Web. 31 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 2 Starr, Forest and Kim. Garcinia xanthochymus (Yellow mangosteen, false mangosteen, gourka) Fruit in half. 2012. Kahanu Gardens, Hana, Maui. starrenvironmental.com. Under (CC BY 4.0). Web. 31 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 3 Starr, Forest and Kim. Garcinia xanthochymus (Yellow mangosteen, false mangosteen, gourka). Seed nibbled on. Kahanu Gardens Hana, Maui, Hawaii. 2012.starrenvironmental.com. Under(CC BY 4.0). Web. 22 June 2017.
Fig. 4,7 Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz. Garcinia xanthochymus in Jardín de Aclimatación de la Orotava. 2016. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 22 June 2017.
Fig. 5,13,20 Florimagix. Garcinia xanthochymus. 2016. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 4.0). Web. 22 June 2017.
Fig. 6 Starr, Forest and Kim. Garcinia xanthochymus (Yellow mangosteen, false mangosteen, gourka). Leaves. Hamana Pl Haiku, Maui, Hawaii. 2014. starrenvironmental.com. Under (CC BY 4.0). Web. 22 June 2017.
Fig. 8,9,14 Cerlin Ng. Garcinia xanthochymus. 2014. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Web. 22 June 2017.
Fig. 10 jayeshpatil912. Flowers of Garcinia xanthochymus from Clusiaceae. Native to India but rarely seen in cultivation. 2012. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 30 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 11,17 Valke, Dinesh. Garcinia xanthochymus, tree growth habit, Thane, India. 2012. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CCC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 22 June 2017.
Fig. 12,22 Vinayaraj. Garcinia tinctoria. 2012. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0). Web. 30 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 15,23,25 Kwan. Garcinia xanthochymus. 2009. natureloveyou.sq. Web. 31 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 16 Cerlin Ng. Garcinia xanthochymus. 2015. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Web. 22 June 2017.
Fig. 18,19 Cerlin Ng. Garcinia xanthochymus. 2016. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Web. 22 June 2017.
Fig. 21 Starr, Forest and Kim. Garcinia xanthochymus (Yellow mangosteen, false mangosteen, gourka). Tree habit. 2009. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui. starrenvironmental.com. Under (CC BY 4.0). Web. 31 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 24 Valke, Dinesh. Garcinia xanthochymus, Thane, India. 2007. commons.wikimedia.org. Under (CC BY-SA 2.0). Web. 22 June 2017.

UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas

Published 30 Jan. 2015 LR. Last update 22 June 2017 LR
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