Madrono, Bumpy Lemon - Garcinia madruno (Kunth) Hammel
Garcinia madruno (kunth) Hammel
Fig. 1 magnifying glass
Garcinia madruno (kunth) Hammel

Leaf
Fig. 2 magnifying glass
Garcinia madruno (kunth) Hammel, leaf

Leaves
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Male flowers buds
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Male flower buds

Male flowers
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Male flowers

Fruit
Fig. 10 magnifying glass

Cross section
Fig. 11 magnifying glass

Seeds
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Dry seeds

Garcinia madruno trunk
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Garcinia madruno trunk

Yellow latex seeping from the cut surface of the wood
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Yellow latex seeping from the cut surface of the wood

Tree habit in Hawaii
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Garcinia madruno (kunth) Hammel tree habit in Hawaii

Tree habit Costa Rica
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Garcinia madruno (kunth) Hammel tree habit in Costa Rica


Scientific name
Garcinia madruno (Kunth) Hammel
Common names
Machari or fruta de mono in Panama; cerillo in Costa Rica; cozoiba in Venezuela; kamururu in Bolivia 5
French: madruno, German: Marienbalsam; Spanish: charichuelo, cozoiba, madroño, naranjita, ocoró, satro 6
Synonyms

Calophyllum madruno Kunth ; Chloromyron verticillatum Pers.; Rheedia acuminata (Ruiz & Pav.) Planch. & Triana; R. kappleri Eyma; R. madruno (Kunth) Planch. & Triana; R. madruno subsp. bituberculata Pittier; R. madruno subsp. ovata Pittier; Verticillaria acuminata Ruiz & Pav. 7
Family
Clusiaceae (formely Guttiferae)
Origin
Southern America
USDA hardiness zones
10a, 10b and 11
Uses
Fruit; landscape specimen
Height
14-30 ft (4.267-9.144 m)
Crown
Pyramidal or nearly round crown 5
Plant habit
The tree is erect, lush, compact; has much gummy yellow latex 5
Trunk/bark/branches
New branches have a somewhat angular growth 2
Leaves
Evergreen; opposite, simple, dark green and leathery
Flower
Creamy-white, unisexual borne singly or in fascicles on young branches
Fruit
White, juicy, acid-sweet pulp; looks like a droopy lemon with similar rind; pulp coats and tightly adheres to 1-3 seeds 3–4 in.
Season
Mid summer
Light requirement
Full sun or light shade
Soil tolerances
Adapted to a wide range of soils; well-drained soils
PH preference
6.6-7.8
Drought tolerance
Unknown
Aerosol salt tolerance
Unknown
Soil salt tolerance
Fair
Cold tolerance
Tolerates average winter conditions but hard freezes may damage leaves/twigs 3
Invasive potential *
None reported
Pest resistance
Few if any pest problems



Reading Material

Madrono from Julia Morton's book Fruits of Warm Climates
The Madrono from the University of Florida Palm Beach Extension Service



There are over 240 Garcinia species, mostly from southeast Asia. Garcinia species from the Americas were once classified as Rheedia, but now all are considered Garcinia.

Sorting Garcinia Names from theMultilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database, University of Melbourne, Australia ext. link


Origin

Brazil: Brazil - Acre, - Amazonas, - Bahia, - Mato Grosso, - Para, - Tocantins
Central America: Costa Rica; Nicaragua; Panama
Northern South America: French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname; Venezuela
Western South America: Bolivia - Beni, - La Paz, - Santa Cruz; Colombia; Ecuador - Carchi, - Esmeraldas, - Napo, - Pastaza; Peru 6

Description
Garcinia madruno is a fruit tree occasionally cultivated in the Amazon region and easily found in its natural habitat, the Eastern Amazon, in dry forests with generally sandy soils.  It is and evergreen with a dense crown, new growth branches are somewhat angular. It is 6-12 m
tall. 2 

Leaf habitLeaf habit
Fig. 22 magnifying glass Fig. 23 magnifying glass

Leaves
The opposite leaves are elliptic to oblong, wedge-shaped at the base, rounded or pointed at the apex, 2 3/8 to 8 in (6-20 cm) long, 3/4 to 3 in (2-7.5 cm) wide; dark green above, paler beneath, with numerous veins conspicuous on both surfaces and merging into a thick marginal vein. 5

Garcinia madruno (kunth) HammelPetioleLeaf
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Flowers
The fragrant male and female flowers are borne on separate trees in clusters of up to 14 in the leaf axils; have 4 reflexed, pale-yellow petals; the male, 25 to 30 light-yellow stamens. 5

Male flower cluster
Fig. 9 magnifying glass

Fig. 9. Male flower cluster

Fruit
The fruit is round or ellipsoidal, sometimes with a prominent nipple at each end; 2 to 3 in (5-7.5 cm) long, with thick, leathery, warty, greenish-yellow rind containing a deep-yellow, resinous latex. The white, translucent, juicy, sweet-acid, aromatic pulp adheres tightly to the 1 to 3 ovate or oblong seeds which are about 3/4 in (2 cm) long. 5
The fruit looks like a shriveled droopy lemon, and has a similar rind. The interior is soft white pulp and has a popular, slightly citrusy taste people have compared to a sweet santol fruit or lemony cotton candy. The species was formerly included in the genus Rheedia, which has since been absorbed into Garcinia, as Rheedias species are now known as "new world mangosteens." 1
One word of caution, though: do not pick fruits prior to maturity. If picked prior to maturity, fruits are generally very acid, and once picked no further ripening occurs in the fruit. 3

Garcinia madruno (kunth) HammelGarcinia madruno (kunth) HammelGarcinia madruno (kunth) Hammel fruiting habit
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Skin removedGarcinia madruno (kunth) Hammel
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Fig. 14 . Garcinia madruno (kunth) Hammel fruiting habit

Pollination
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required.

Propagation
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a semi-shaded position in a nursery seedbed. Germination rates in excess of 70% are usually achieved, with the seed sprouting within 60 - 70 days. 4

Culture
Garcinia madruno is well adapted to a wide variety of soils, tolerating even poor soils or heavy clay. It is a slow grower and takes about 5 to 7 years to fruit. When young, it must be protected from frosts and it will not fruit in cold areas. The fruit is not very well known outside of South America and a few backyard growers in South Florida. 1

Food Uses
In addition to being eaten as a fresh fruit it makes an excellent jam. 3

Other Uses
The yellow latex of the tree is used in Panama to treat ulcers and other sores. The wood is pinkish and hard but not commonly used. 5


List of Growers and Vendors
Bibliography

1 "Garcinia madruno." wikipedia.org. N.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2014.

2 Lorenzi, Harri, Bacher, Luis, Lacerda, Marco and Sartori, Sergio. "Brazillian Fruits & Cultivated Exotics (for consuming in natura)." Brazil. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA. 2006. Print.

3 Joyner, Gene. "The Madrono." ifas.ufl.edu. Palm Beach County Extension Service. Web. 3 May 2015

4 Lorenzi. H. "Brazilian Trees. Volume 3." Brazil. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA. 2008. Print.
5 Morton, J. "Bakupari." hort.purdue.edu. Fruits of warm climates, p. 309-310. 1987. Web. 11 Jan. 2015.
6 "Garcinia madruno (Kunth) Hammel." ars-grin.gov. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Web. 7Jan. 2017.
7 "Garcinia madruno (Kunth) Hammel synonyms." The Plant List (2010). Version 1. theplantlist.org. Web. 7 Dec. 2017.

Photographs

Fig. 1,2,4,5,6,12,13,14,1619,21 Aguilar, Reinaldo. Garcinia madruno (kunth) Hammel. 2011. Vascular Plants of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. flidkr.com. (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0).  Web. 7 Jan. 2017.

Fig. 3,7,8,10,11,12,15 Steve Paton. Garcinia madruno. N.d. Environmental Sciences Program, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. stri.si.edu. Web. 25 Jan. 2014.

Fig. 18,20,22,23 Starr, Forest and Kim. Garcinia madruno. 2009. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui. starrenvironmental.com. Web. 6 Apr. 2015.

UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas

Published 12 Apr. 2014 LR. Last update 8 Jan. 2017 LR
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